Tag Publication

When to eat fatty meals: nutrition researchers discover new “biological lipid metabolism clock”

Just in time of Christmas, scientists from the German Institute for Human Nutrition (DIfE) and Lipotype GmbH have published their results of their research on the influence of fatty breakfasts and dinners on lipid metabolism. Their newly discovered “biological lipid metabolism clock” fills a gap in nutritional medicine to activate nutrition for prevention and intervention, and to research how specific foods at specific times of the day can contribute to our health or disease.


Two groups of scientists, one goal
The research group of PD Dr. Olga Ramich at the German Institute for Human Nutrition (DIfE) and the scientists of Lipotype GmbH share one mission: combat the diseases which plague modern society. Together, they want to activate nutrition and diet as a tool for prevention and intervention of widespread diseases such as diabetes.

Four years ago, during a meetup in Berlin, both agreed that the lack of molecular data about the influence of the diet on lipid metabolism was a black box of scientific mysteries. “In nutrition research, we had come to grips with general recommendations like less sugar and less fat.”, remembers Dr. Christian Klose from Lipotype GmbH, “But the questions we as a group of scientists wanted to answer were: are there foods with measurable health benefits and what happens with us if we eat fatty in the morning or in the evening?” The DIfE research group specialized in nutritional medicine developed a setup for a clinical trial to answer these questions.


A clinical study to answer these questions
In a first step, the metabolism of the health study participants was calibrated through a strict diet plan. After this period, one group of the study participants ate a fatty meal for breakfast and a carbohydrate-rich meal for dinner. The second group received the reversed meal plan. During this last step, blood samples were drawn from all participants before and after each meal.

“We wanted to understand how the lipid metabolism and its hundreds of different lipids in blood plasma react to our diet program.”, explains PD Dr. Olga Ramich from DIfE, “And, we were interested in how these changes in blood plasma lipid levels are linked to insulin sensitivity, which can be a great indicator to identify patients who are prone to developing diabetes.” The crux: traditional lipid analysis was not detailed enough to answer these questions. Which is why the samples were sent to Lipotype for a shotgun lipidomics analysis, a detailed molecular analysis of hundreds of lipids at once.


Lipidomics discovers a new biological clock
The extracted blood plasma lipids were shot into a mass spectrometer. Bioinformatics solutions unveiled 14 lipid classes with a total of 672 different lipids from the mass spectrometer results, and bio-statistical methods converted these into lipidomics charts and graphs. “We discovered a daily lipid metabolism pattern – a biological lipid metabolism clock. This clock responded significantly differently to same meals in the morning than in the evening, and such time-dependent pattern  was found for both high-carb and high-fat meals.”, states Dr. Christian Klose. Next, the lipidomics results were plotted against insulin sensitivity measurements to discover a link between 7 of the 14 lipid classes and insulin sensitivity.

“These results are fundamental to activate nutrition and diet as a tool for prevention and intervention of widespread diseases. It’s the basis to research which specific foods at specific time of the day can help adjust insulin sensitivity to healthy levels and act against diabetes.”, comments PD Dr. Olga Ramich, “Discovering the lipid metabolism clock underlines what our nutritional medicine research group has been emphasizing for years: the concept of an internal clock applies to our metabolism too. Living against this clock is unhealthy and increases the risk for diabetes.”


Resources

1 – Publication: Shotgun lipidomics discovered diurnal regulation of lipid metabolism linked to insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic men
2 – Press Release: The Biological Lipid Metabolism Clock
3 – Pressemitteilung: Die Biologische Fettstoffwechsel-Uhr


Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram or Facebook, and subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

Obesity risk quantification: Lipidomic BMI better than traditional BMI

Obesity is a prime threat to human health. In daily healthcare practice, the go-to indicator of overweight and obesity is the body mass index (BMI). Now, an international team of scientists led by Lipotype introduces a revolutionary A.I. BMI approach towards personalized and precision medicine.


A joint effort of academy and industry
When academy meets industry significant jumps towards the future are possible. Researchers from TU Dresden and Lipotype GmbH, a spin-off of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, with the international participation of scientists from Lund University (Sweden) and National Institute for Health and Welfare (Finland) teamed up to critically investigate the BMI of more than 1000 patients. The international research team applied advanced artificial intelligence tools to develop an algorithm which makes use of the human blood plasma lipid composition, the plasma lipidome.


The lipidomic BMI
The plasma lipidome contains hundreds of distinct lipids. “Together, they are valuable indicators to explore the state of metabolism health of an individual – like a health fingerprint”, explains Mathias Gerl from Lipotype. This lipidomic data was used for training the algorithm to predict the BMI of each patient.

In comparison to the ‘household measures’-based BMI, the lipidomic data provided the new algorithm with the power to propose a new ‘molecular lipidomic BMI’. The lipidomic BMI calculation revealed that the molecular BMI was in a number of cases significantly higher than the traditional BMI. In approximately 1 out of 7 patients, the lipidomic BMI improved the classic ‘morphometric BMI’, and provided more information about obesity compared to the traditional BMI measurement, e.g. about the amount of visceral fat, a harmful kind of fat deposit.


The future of BMI
“Long-time consequences can occur when a patient in need for a weight reducing therapy to combat the risk for obesity-associated disease is sent home without remedy”, states Olle Melander from Lund University. “These patients may suddenly suffer from a heart attack at age 40 leaving their doctors puzzled”, comments Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci from the Biotechnology Center (BIOTEC) at the TU Dresden and adds: “We should overcome the obsolete logic that a single marker can help to assess risk in complex systems such as humans. Computational biomedicine adopts artificial intelligence to design multidimensional markers composed of many variables that increase precision of diagnosis. Hence, we hope that the traditional BMI will be replaced with a lipidomic marker to outpace the misclassification of 14% of patients.”


Resources

1 – Publication: Machine learning of human plasma lipidomes for obesity estimation in a large population cohort
2 – Press Release: Obesity risk quantification, a jump towards the future
3 – Pressemitteilung: Adipositas-Risikobestimmung, ein Sprung in die Zukunft
4 – TV news: Blutanalyse soll bei Erkennung von Adipositas helfen (only available until October 28)


Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram or Facebook, and subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

The month of August in Lipidomics Publications

The month of August came with a set of newly-published lipidomics publications which made use of Lipotype Shotgun Lipidomics.


Chronic kidney disease
Clinical risk factors explain only a fraction of the variability of eGFR decline in people with type 2 diabetes. However, cross-omics technologies have the potential to identify additional biomarkers for the refinement of prognosis.

Putting together proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics panel assay measurements and the clinical factor eGFR, the investigation unraveled the predictor biomarker KIM-1.

This is the first publication of the BEAt-DKD consortium which receives funding under IMI of the EU.


Nano-scale lipid organization
The plasma membrane is composed of a complex lipid mixture that forms heterogeneous membrane environments. Physiological events are controlled by small-scale lipid organization.

The investigation unraveled that some proteins are critical for the synthesis of the lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate, a key regulator of dynamic events at the plasma membrane. Ultimately, they control global plasma membrane organization and dynamics.


Lipid droplet size
Lipid droplet breakdown in hepatocytes (liver cells) is mediated by a combination of lipolysis and a selective autophagic mechanism called lipophagy. However, the relationship of these seemingly distinct pathways remained unclear – until now.

This study found that inhibition of lipolysis, lipophagy, or both resulted in similar overall lipid droplet content but dramatic differences in their form. Inhibition of the lipolysis enzyme ATGL resulted in large cytoplasmic lipid droplets, whereas lysosomal inhibition caused the accumulation of numerous small ones within the cytoplasm. The combination of both resulted in large droplets.


Alterations of the liver in diabetes
The liver regulates the availability of insulin to other tissues. It is the first organ physiologically exposed to higher insulin concentrations. The molecular consequences of chronic insulin deficiency for the liver have now been studied systematically.

The analyses revealed increased activities in amino acid metabolism, oxidation of fatty acids, ketogenesis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver samples. The first multi-omics study of a clinically relevant diabetic large animal model revealed molecular signatures and key drivers of functional alterations of the liver in insulin-deficient diabetes.


Resources

1 – Integrative analysis of prognostic biomarkers derived from multiomics panels helps discrimination of chronic kidney disease trajectories in people with type 2 diabetes
2 – Osh Proteins Control Nanoscale Lipid Organization Necessary for PI(4,5)P2 Synthesis
3 – Lipid droplet size directs lipolysis and lipophagy catabolism in hepatocytes
4 – Multi-omics insights into functional alterations of the liver in insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus


Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter or Facebook, and subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

Lipotype Shotgun Lipidomics technology in Science journal

Every scientist dreams of a report in Science. For us, this dream has just come true. The research project of one of our customers has been published by the iconic journal Science.


The research project in 60 seconds
Cell membranes contain a vast range of distinct lipid species. Their chemical differences influence the physical characteristics of membranes, such as viscosity. Thus, the lipid composition affects biological functions.

To identify the lipids involved, the research group used genetic engineering to modulate the lipid composition of bacteria. They correlated bacterial growth rates with lipid composition. From that they concluded that the level of unsaturated lipids influences cellular respiration, the conversion of nutrients into energy (e.g. ATP).

Further biological research and physical modeling confirmed the results. In the end, they could replicate their findings in yeast mitochondria, the organelle responsible for cellular respiration in animals and plants. Thus, further highlighting the importance of lipidomics in fundamental research.


All science is just as good as the research which precedes it
This publication has been added to the Lipidomics Resource Center, an online tool to empower your lipid research. It features scientific publications, white papers and industry insights. The integrated live full-text search and in-depth tag filter system will help you identify information of your interest.

Lipids are essential to life. Make them essential to your research too!


Resources

Viscous control of cellular respiration by membrane lipid composition – Science, 2018
Itay Budin, Tristan de Rond, Yan Chen, Leanne J G Chan, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling


Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter or Facebook, and subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

A good month for public access to research

July has been a great month. Three new publications with Lipotype Shotgun Lipidomics technology have been put out, and the Lipidomics Resource Center received its first major update. Read more about this!


One month – three publications

This month, three new publications with Lipotype Shotgun Lipidomics technology were published!

Paper 1: Parkinson’s disease
In Parkinson’s, excessive contacts between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum lead to abnormal lipid trafficking. This stops the release of “sleep” peptides affecting sleep patterns of patients long before they experience motor dysfunctions

Paper 2: vacciness
Adjuvants like the well-established AS03 are agents in vaccines that do not provide immunity but stimulate the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism behind AS03’s adjuvant effect had yet to be fully illuminated. These new results could be applied to design novel vaccine adjuvants

Paper 3: cancer therapeutics
Oncogenic RAS proteins must localize to the plasma membrane to act. The recently described oxanthroquinone G01 disrupts that, affects levels of some lipids and synergizes with other compounds that affect oncogenic RAS proteins. G01 could become a new anti-RAS therapeutic

As always: access the Lipidomics Resource Center to study more publications!


The first major Lipidomics Resource Center update

We strive for scientific excellence, and therefore must hold on to the fact that all science is just as good as the research which precedes it. Therefore, we created the Lipidomics Resource Center which provides access to lipidomics publications and whitepapers to empower your research. However, that is just not enough. Therefore we added a completely new category: “products”!

There is a whole universe of research which you cannot access through reading scientific publications. And that is most of industry research. However, this type of research is reflected by product development and patents. The new category “products” gives you access to exactly this kind of hidden information.

Lipidomics is no longer a thing of the lab. It is out in the world. Now, you can learn about it!


Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook or Google+, and subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

Parkinson’s Disease, Fruit Flies and Lipotype

What happened

Do fruit flies suffer from Parkinson’s? Not exactly. But patients who suffer from this neurological disease experience disturbed sleep patterns long before motor dysfunctions. This can be modelled in fruit flies. Researchers from the Netherlands and Germany showed that excessive contacts between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in Parkinson’s flies lead to abnormal lipid trafficking. This prevents the release of “sleep” neuropeptides, which affects sleep patterns.

Lipotype performed lipid analysis on fruit fly heads and various organelles. The results clearly supported the researchers’ hypothesis: in Parkinson’s fruit flies the lipid PtdSer is transferred from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria, and converted to PtdEtn at a higher rate, when compared with healthy flies. This was proven through Lipotype Shotgun Lipidomics technology.


Read the full publication

ER Lipid Defects in Neuropeptidergic Neurons Impair Sleep Patterns in Parkinson’s Disease – Neuron, 2018
Jorge S Valadas, Giovanni Esposito, Dirk Vandekerkhove, Katarzyna Miskiewicz, Liesbeth Deaulmerie, Susanna Raitano, Philip Seibler, Christine Klein, Patrik Verstreken


Follow us on  LinkedIn,  Twitter,  Facebook or  Google+, and  subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

Lipotype performed lipid analysis of bacteria for future antimicrobial strategies

What happened

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multi-drug resistant bacteria, and can cause serious illnesses such as pneumonia or sepsis syndromes. The publication from TU Braunschweig shows that, when grown under unaerobic biofilm conditions, the bacterium produces less of a protein, which binds specifically to the central hub of phospholipid metabolism.

With Lipotype shotgun lipidomics, a diverse response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the lipid head group and fatty acid level was demonstrated. This increased the susceptibility to a wide range of antibiotics which is important for the future development of new antimicrobial strategies.


Read the full publication

A phosphatidic acid-binding protein is important for lipid homeostasis and adaptation to anaerobic biofilm conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Biochemical Journal, 2018
Maike K Gronewald, Marco Massmig, Stefanie Hebecker, Linna Danne, Zofia Magnowska, Manfred Nimtz, Franz Narberhaus, Dieter Jahn, Dirk W Heinz, Lothar Jänsch, Jürgen Moser


Follow us on  LinkedIn,  Twitter,  Facebook or  Google+, and  subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on lipids and lipidomics!

HOW CAN OMIC SCIENCE BE IMPROVED?

Kai Simons, founder and CEO of Lipotype, has been following the development of omic science for decades. His lifelong experience as well as his proficiency in lipids and lipidomics has led him to a detailed review.

The published article “How can Omic Science be improved?” critically analyzes the shortcomings of modern omic science, which yet could not fulfill its promise of a paradigm shift in medicine and biology. Bot, scientific evolution and present challenges of this field of research are taken into account to picture the overall view.

While the article itself focuses on lipidomics, Kai Simon’s field of expertise, all lessons learned can be applied generally to omic science.


Read the full article here:
How can Omic Science be improved? – Proteomics Journal, 2018
Kai Simons

Lipid analysis for early stages of drug discovery: Customer Reference Flagship VentureLabs

Lipotype performed lipid analysis for Flagship VentureLabs with the aim to better understand molecular compositions of chondrisomes, pharmaceutically active derivatives of mitochondria. The research of Flagship VentureLabs is on novel ways of preparation of chondrisomes that have beneficial structural characteristics, yield, concentration, stability, viability, integrity, or function. The lipidomic results facilitated the characterization of isolated chondrisomes in order to evaluate their quality and subsequently were used to file a recently published patent application.

Read more  


Read the patent application here
Methods and Compositions of Chondrisomes – United States Patent Application 20170151287, 2017
G A Von Maltzahn, J M Milwid, M Mee, J R Rubens, D Chess, K Trudeau, K Mahdaviani, J Feala

Lipotype analyzed Munich MIDY Pig Biobank samples for multi-omics studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes

Lipotype lipidomics was part of a wider study of samples from Munich MIDY Pig Biobank – an animal model to study poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Lipidomic data clearly separated MIDY and WT samples. The detailed characterization of these samples will help to establish an unique resource for systematic studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes in a multi-organ, multi-omics dimension.

 

Read the whole publication here:

The Munich MIDY Pig Biobank – A unique resourse for studying organ crosstalk in diabetes – Molecular Metabolism, 2017
Andreas Blutke et. al.