Lipidomics Resource Center

All science is just as good, as the research which precedes it. This platform helps you to discover lipidomics publications and empower your lipid research.

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  1. Science, 2018

    1Viscous control of cellular respiration by membrane lipid composition

    Itay Budin, Tristan de Rond, Yan Chen, Leanne J G Chan, Christopher J Petzold, Jay D Keasling

    Abstract

    Lipid composition determines the physical properties of biological membranes and can vary substantially between and within organisms. We describe a specific role for the viscosity of energy-transducing membranes in cellular respiration. Engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli allowed us to titrate inner membrane viscosity across a 10-fold range by controlling the abundance of unsaturated or branched lipids. These fluidizing lipids tightly controlled respiratory metabolism, an effect that can be explained with a quantitative model of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) that features diffusion-coupled reactions between enzymes and electron carriers (quinones). Lipid unsaturation also modulated mitochondrial respiration in engineered budding yeast strains. Thus, diffusion in the ETC may serve as an evolutionary constraint for lipid composition in respiratory membranes.

    doi.org/10.1126/science.aat7925

    publications
    cells, bacteria, basic science
  2. White Paper Series, 2018

    2Unlocking the Power of Multiomics

    Henri Deda, Christian Klose, Kai Simons

    Abstract

    Multiomics approaches are on their way to revolutionize medicine and biology. Being major players in cardiovascular disease research, genomics and lipidomics are perfectly suited for a joint multiomics approach. Combining genomic risk prediction with lipidomic phenotyping will result in an effective payoff.

    This whitepaper will answer how linking the lipid phenotype to the genotype will improve performance and showcase immediate and future consequences for prevention, clinical diagnostics and drug research.

    lipotype.com/multiomics/

    white papers
    human, clinical, biomarker, plasma/serum, CVD
  3. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2018

    3Lipidomics in Major Depressive Disorder

    Andreas Walther, Carlo V Cannistraci, Kai Simons, Claudio Durán, Mathias J Gerl, Susanne Wehrli, Clemens Kirschbaum

    Abstract

    Omic sciences coupled with novel computational approaches such as machine intelligence offer completely new approaches to major depressive disorder (MDD) research. The complexity of MDD’s pathophysiology is being integrated into studies examining MDD’s biology within the omic fields. Lipidomics, as a late-comer among other omic fields, is increasingly being recognized in psychiatric research because it has allowed the investigation of global lipid perturbations in patients suffering from MDD and indicated a crucial role of specific patterns of lipid alterations in the development and progression of MDD. Combinatorial lipid-markers with high classification power are being developed in order to assist MDD diagnosis, while rodent models of depression reveal lipidome changes and thereby unveil novel treatment targets for depression. In this systematic review, we provide an overview of current breakthroughs and future trends in the field of lipidomics in MDD research and thereby paving the way for precision medicine in MDD.

    doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00459

    publications
    clinical, biomarker, neuro
  4. Scientific Reports, 2018

    4Cholesterol is Inefficiently Converted to Cholesteryl Esters in the Blood of Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Mathias J Gerl, Winchil L C Vaz, Neuza Domingues, Christian Klose, Michal A Surma, Júlio L Sampaio, Manuel S Almeida, Gustavo Rodrigues, Pedro Araújo-Gonçalves, Jorge Ferreira, Claudia Borbinha, João P Marto, Miguel Viana-Baptista, Kai Simons, Otilia V Vieira

    Abstract

    Shotgun lipidomic analysis of 203 lipids in 13 lipid classes performed on blood plasma of donors who had just suffered an acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n = 74), or an ischemic stroke (IS, n = 21), or who suffer from stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 78), and an age-matched control cohort (n = 52), showed some of the highest inter-lipid class correlations between cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) sharing a common fatty acid. The concentration of lysophospatidylcholine (LPC) and ratios of concentrations of CE to free cholesterol (Chol) were also lower in the CVD cohorts than in the control cohort, indicating a deficient conversion of Chol to CE in the blood plasma in the CVD subjects. A non-equilibrium reaction quotient, Q′, describing the global homeostasis of cholesterol as manifested in the blood plasma was shown to have a value in the CVD cohorts (QACS = 0.217 ± 0.084; QIS = 0.201 ± 0.084; QSAP = 0.220 ± 0.071) that was about one third less than in the control cohort (QControl = 0.320 ± 0.095, p < 1 × 10−4), suggesting its potential use as a rapid predictive/diagnostic measure of CVD-related irregularities in cholesterol homeostasis.

    doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33116-4

    publications
    human, clinical, biomarker, plasma/serum, CVD
  5. Product development, 2018

    5Photodamaged dry facial skin from different ethnic groups

    Rainer Voegeli, Jean-Marc Monneuse, Christian Klose, Rotraut Schoop, Beverley Summers, Thomas Rudolph, Anthony V Rawlings

    Abstract
    Even though decades of moisturizer development have passed, dry facial skin remains a major concern for consumers. Thus, DSM’s aim was to understand more precisely the underlying biochemistry, particularly of the maturation of the stratum corneum and its relation to facial photodamage, skin pigmentation and ethnicity. In contrast to traditional research of skin analyte composition, a more revolutionary ‘omic’ approach was applied.

    lipotype.com/2018/08/royal-dsm/

    products
    cosmetics
  6. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2018

    6An oxanthroquinone derivative that disrupts RAS plasma membrane localization inhibits cancer cell growth

    Lingxiao Tan, Kwang-Jin Cho, Pratik Neupane, Robert J Capon, John F Hancock

    Abstract

    Oncogenic RAS proteins are commonly expressed in human cancer. To be functional, RAS proteins must undergo post-translational modification and localize to the plasma membrane (PM). Therefore, compounds that prevent RAS PM targeting have potential as putative RAS inhibitors. Here we examine the mechanism of action of oxanthroquinone G01 (G01), a recently described inhibitor of KRAS PM localization. We show that G01 mislocalizes HRAS and KRAS from the PM with similar potency and disrupts the spatial organization of RAS proteins remaining on the PM. G01 also inhibited recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor, but did not impair internalization of cholera toxin, indicating suppression of recycling endosome function. In searching for the mechanism of impaired endosomal recycling we observed that G01 also enhanced cellular sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide levels and disrupted the localization of several lipid and cholesterol reporters, suggesting that the G01 molecular target may involve SM metabolism. Indeed, G01 exhibited potent synergy with other compounds that target SM metabolism in KRAS localization assays. Furthermore, G01 significantly abrogated RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling in MDCK cells expressing constitutively activated, oncogenic mutant RASG12V. G01 also inhibited the proliferation of RAS-less mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing oncogenic mutant KRASG12V or KRASG12D but not RAS-less MEFs expressing oncogenic mutant BRAFV600E. Consistent with these effects, G01 selectively inhibited the proliferation of KRAS-transformed pancreatic, colon, and endometrial cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that G01 should undergo further evaluation as a potential anti-RAS therapeutic.

    doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.003907

    publications
    cells, pharma, other mammals, cancer
  7. npj Vaccines, 2018

    7Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor IRE1α by the vaccine adjuvant AS03 contributes to its immunostimulatory properties

    Charlotte Givord, Iain Welsby, Sophie Detienne, Séverine Thomas, Assiya Assabban, Viviana Lima Silva, Céline Molle, Romain Gineste, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Perez-Morga, Oberdan Leo, Catherine Collignon, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Stanislas Goriely

    Abstract

    The oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) is one of the few adjuvants used in licensed vaccines. Previous work indicates that AS03 induces a local and transient inflammatory response that contributes to its adjuvant effect. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its immunostimulatory properties are ill-defined. Upon intramuscular injection in mice, AS03 elicited a rapid and transient downregulation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the draining lymph node. In vitro, these modifications were associated with profound changes in lipid composition, alteration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology and activation of the unfolded protein response pathway. In vivo, treatment with a chemical chaperone or deletion of the ER stress sensor kinase IRE1α in myeloid cells decreased AS03-induced cytokine production and its capacity to elicit high affinity antigen-specific antibodies. In summary, our results indicate that IRE1α is a sensor for the metabolic changes induced by AS03 in monocytic cells and may constitute a canonical pathway that could be exploited for the design of novel vaccine adjuvants.

    doi.org/10.1038/s41541-018-0058-4

    publications
    mouse, cells, pharma
  8. Patent, 2018

    8Methods and systems for metabolite and/or lipid-based detection of colorectal cancer and/or adenomatous polyps

    Marko Bitenc, Kristi Kruusmaa, Paola Hurtado-Castillo, Ana M Jiménez-Girón, Rosa Argamasilla-Martinez, Andreu Fabregat-Rossel, Antonio J Adsuar-Gomez, Juan Martinez-Barea, Christian Hense, Patricia Rodríguez-Gómez, Ángela Peralbo-Molina, Jorge Casado-Agrelo, Alejandro Sánchez-Brotons, Christina Pavón-Solís, Rosa M Delgado-Sánchez

    Abstract

    Described herein are sets of metabolite and lipid (e.g., fatty acid) markers that can be used in the detection of early stage colorectal cancer and/or early development of adenomatous polyps. Presented herein are illustrative pathology-linked panels. In certain embodiments, the markers presented herein (or subsets thereof) are used as a panel for detecting either colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps at the same time. The markers presented herein include metabolites and lipids (e.g., fatty acid) freely detectable and accurately quantifiable in human serum. In certain embodiments, the sample may be plasma, urine, saliva, whole blood, dried blood spot or dried serum spot.

    freepatentsonline.com/y2017/0343567.html

    products
    biomarker, cancer
  9. Neuron, 2018

    9ER Lipid Defects in Neuropeptidergic Neurons Impair Sleep Patterns in Parkinson’s Disease

    Jorge S Valadas, Giovanni Esposito, Dirk Vandekerkhove, Katarzyna Miskiewicz, Liesbeth Deaulmerie, Susanna Raitano, Philip Seibler, Christine Klein, Patrik Verstreken

    Abstract

    Parkinson’s disease patients report disturbed sleep patterns long before motor dysfunction. Here, in parkin and pink1 models, we identify circadian rhythm and sleep pattern defects and map these to specific neuropeptidergic neurons in fly models and in hypothalamic neurons differentiated from patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Parkin and Pink1 control the clearance of mitochondria by protein ubiquitination. Although we do not observe major defects in mitochondria of mutant neuropeptidergic neurons, we do find an excess of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial contacts. These excessive contact sites cause abnormal lipid trafficking that depletes phosphatidylserine from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and disrupts the production of neuropeptide-containing vesicles. Feeding mutant animals phosphatidylserine rescues neuropeptidergic vesicle production and acutely restores normal sleep patterns in mutant animals. Hence, sleep patterns and circadian disturbances in Parkinson’s disease models are explained by excessive ER-mitochondrial contacts, and blocking their formation or increasing phosphatidylserine levels rescues the defects in vivo.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.05.022

    publications
    organ/tissue, fly, organelle, neuro
  10. Biochemical Journal, 2018

    10A phosphatidic acid binding protein is important for lipid homeostasis and adaption to anaerobic biofilm conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Maike K Groenewold, Marco Massmig, Stefanie Hebecker, Linna Danne, Zofia Magnowska, Manfred Nimtz, Franz Narberhaus, Dieter Jahn, Dirk W Heinz, Lothar Jänsch, Jürgen Moser

    Abstract

    A quantitative Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteomics approach revealed increased abundance of the so far uncharacterized protein PA3911 in anaerobic biofilms grown under conditions of the cystic fibrosis lung. Physiological relevance of ORF PA3911 was demonstrated, inter alia, using phenotype microarray experiments. The mutant strain showed increased susceptibility in the presence of antimicrobials (minocycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol), enhanced twitching motility and significantly impaired biofilm formation. PA3911 is a soluble, cytoplasmic protein in P. aeruginosa. In protein-lipid overlay experiments, purified PA3911 bound specifically to phosphatidic acid (PA), the central hub of phospholipid metabolism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis was used to explore the proposed ligand binding cavity of PA3911. Proteins variant of Leu56, Leu58, Val69 and Leu114 were shown to impair PA interaction. A comparative shotgun lipidomics approach demonstrated a multifaceted response of P. aeruginosa to anaerobic conditions at the lipid head group and fatty acid level. Lipid homeostasis in the PA3911 mutant strain was imbalanced with respect to lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol under anaerobic and/or aerobic conditions. The impact of the newly identified PA binding protein on lipid homeostasis and the related macroscopic phenotypes of P. aeruginosa are discussed.

    doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20180257

    publications
    cells, bacteria, basic science
  11. Product development, 2018

    11Lipid analysis for skin penetration properties of saturated phospholipids

    Dorothea Gutekunst, Christian Klose, Christoph Heidecke, Peter Van Hoogevest

    Abstract

    Lipoid conducted this novel study to investigate skin penetration properties of dermal formulations based on hydrogenated phospholipids. Common to all topically used phospholipids is their ability to interact with skin structures and the similarity to epidermal lipids. For the first time, the quantitative analysis of both exogenous phospholipids and endogenous skin lipids within a single measurement was demonstrated. The results confirm the properties of hydrogenated phospholipids to penetrate and accumulate in upper epidermal layers.

    lipotype.com/2018/05/lipoid/

    products
    cosmetics
  12. Phytochemical Analysis, 2018

    12Dereplication of plant phenolics using a mass‐spectrometry database independent method

    Ricardo M Borges, Rahil Taujale, Juliana Santana de Souza, Thaís de Andrade Bezerra, Eder Lana e Silva, Ronny Herzog, Francesca V Ponce, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Arthur S Edison

    Abstract

    Dereplication, an approach to sidestep the efforts involved in the isolation of known compounds, is generally accepted as being the first stage of novel discoveries in natural product research. It is based on metabolite profiling analysis of complex natural extracts.

    To present the application of LipidXplorer for automatic targeted dereplication of phenolics in plant crude extracts based on direct infusion high‐resolution tandem mass spectrometry data.

    LipidXplorer uses a user‐defined molecular fragmentation query language (MFQL) to search for specific characteristic fragmentation patterns in large data sets and highlight the corresponding metabolites. To this end, MFQL files were written to dereplicate common phenolics occurring in plant extracts. Complementary MFQL files were used for validation purposes.

    New MFQL files with molecular formula restrictions for common classes of phenolic natural products were generated for the metabolite profiling of different representative crude plant extracts. This method was evaluated against an open‐source software for mass‐spectrometry data processing (MZMine®) and against manual annotation based on published data.

    The targeted LipidXplorer method implemented using common phenolic fragmentation patterns, was found to be able to annotate more phenolics than MZMine® that is based on automated queries on the available databases. Additionally, screening for ascarosides, natural products with unrelated structures to plant phenolics collected from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, demonstrated the specificity of this method by cross‐testing both groups of chemicals in both plants and nematodes.

    doi.org/10.1002/pca.2773

    publications
    technology
  13. Proteomics, 2018

    13How Can Omic Science be Improved?

    Kai Simons

    Abstract

    One of the promises of multiomic analysis was to transform the clinical diagnostics to deliver much more exact phenotyping of disease states. However, despite enormous investments, the transformation of clinical routine has not taken place. There are many reasons for this lack of success but one is the failure to deliver quantitative and reproducible data. This failure is not only impeding progress in clinical phenotyping but also in the application of omic science in systems biology. The focus in this Viewpoint will be on lipidomics but the lessons learned are generally applicable

    doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201800039

    publications
    technology
  14. Cancer Research, 2018

    14Organelle-derived acetyl-CoA promotes prostate cancer cell survival, migration, and metastasis via activation of calmodulin kinase II

    Guoyu Yu, Chien-Jui Cheng, Song-Chang Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Daniel E Frigo, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, Gary E Gallick, Mark A Titus, Leta K Nutt, Sue-Hwa Lin

    Abstract

    Although emerging evidence suggests a potential role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) in prostate cancer (PCa), its role in PCa tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here we examine whether the acetyl CoA-CaMKII pathway, first described in frog oocytes, promotes PCa tumorigenesis. In human PCa specimens, metastatic PCa expressed higher levels of active CaMKII compared to localized PCa. Correspondingly, basal CaMKII activity was significantly higher in the more tumorigenic PC3 and PC3-mm2 cells relative to the less tumorigenic LNCaP and C4-2B4 cells. Deletion of CaMKII by CRISPR/Cas9 in PC3-mm2 cells abrogated cell survival under low-serum conditions, anchorage-independent growth and cell migration; overexpression of constitutively active CaMKII in C4-2B4 cells promoted these phenotypes. In an animal model of PCa metastasis, genetic ablation of CaMKII reduced PC3-mm2 cell metastasis from the prostate to the lymph nodes. Knockdown of the acetyl-CoA transporter carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) abolished CaMKII activation, providing evidence that acetyl-CoA generated from organelles is a major activator of CaMKII. Genetic deletion of the β-oxidation rate-limiting enzyme ACOX family proteins decreased CaMKII activation, while overexpression of ACOXI increased CaMKII activation. Overall, our studies identify active CaMKII as a novel connection between organelle β-oxidation and acetyl-CoA transport with cell survival, migration, and PCa metastasis.

    doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-2392

    publications
    human, cells, cancer
  15. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2018

    15Sphingomyelin Metabolism Is a Regulator of K-Ras Function

    Dharini van der Hoeven, Kwang-Jin Cho, Yong Zhou, Xiaoping Ma, Wei Chen, Ali Naji, Dina Montufar-Solis, Yan Zuo, Sarah E Kovar, Kandice R Levental, Jeffrey A Frost, Ransome van der Hoeven, John F Hancock

    Abstract

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane (PM) for biological activity. We show here that multiple acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) inhibitors, including tricyclic antidepressants, mislocalized phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and K-RasG12V from the PM, resulting in abrogation of K-RasG12V signaling and potent, selective growth inhibition of mutant K-Ras-transformed cancer cells. Concordantly, in nude mice, the ASM inhibitor fendiline decreased the rate of growth of oncogenic K-Ras-expressing MiaPaCa-2 tumors but had no effect on the growth of the wild-type K-Ras-expressing BxPC-3 tumors. ASM inhibitors also inhibited activated LET-60 (a K-Ras ortholog) signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans, as evidenced by suppression of the induced multivulva phenotype. Using RNA interference against C. elegans genes encoding other enzymes in the sphingomyelin (SM) biosynthetic pathway, we identified 14 enzymes whose knockdown strongly or moderately suppressed the LET-60 multivulva phenotype. In mammalian cells, pharmacological agents that target these enzymes all depleted PtdSer from the PM and caused K-RasG12V mislocalization. These effects correlated with changes in SM levels or subcellular distribution. Selected compounds, including sphingosine kinase inhibitors, potently inhibited the proliferation of oncogenic K-Ras-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, these results show that normal SM metabolism is critical for K-Ras function, which may present therapeutic options for the treatment of K-Ras-driven cancers.

    doi.org/doi:10.1128/MCB.00373-17

    publications
    cells, other mammals, cancer
  16. Cell, 2018

    16Modulation of Myelopoiesis Progenitors Is an Integral Component of Trained Immunity

    Ioannis Mitroulis, Klara Ruppova, Baomei Wang, Lan-Sun Chen, Michal Grzybek, Tatyana Grinenko, Anne Eugster, Maria Troullinaki, Alessandra Palladini, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Andreas Schlitzer, Marc Beyer, Leo A B Joosten, Berend Isermann, Mathias Lesche, Andreas Petzold, Kai Simons, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Joachim L Schultze, Ben Wielockx, Nicola Zamboni, Peter Mirtschink, Ünal Coskun, George Hajishengallis, Mihai G Netea, Triantafyllos Chavakis

    Abstract

    Trained innate immunity fosters a sustained favorable response of myeloid cells to a secondary challenge, despite their short lifespan in circulation. We thus hypothesized that trained immunity acts via modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Administration of β-glucan (prototypical trained-immunity-inducing agonist) to mice induced expansion of progenitors of the myeloid lineage, which was associated with elevated signaling by innate immune mediators, such as IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and with adaptations in glucose metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis. The trained-immunity-related increase in myelopoiesis resulted in a beneficial response to secondary LPS challenge and protection from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in mice. Therefore, modulation of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow is an integral component of trained immunity, which to date, was considered to involve functional changes of mature myeloid cells in the periphery.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.034

    publications
    mouse, cells, basic science
  17. PLOS genetics, 2018

    17Adipose tissue ATGL modifies the cardiac lipidome in pressure-overload-induced left ventricular failure

    Janek Salatzki, Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Kajetan Bentele, Annelie Blumrich, Elia Smeir, Zsofia Ban, Sarah Brix, Jana Grune, Niklas Beyhoff, Robert Klopfleisch, Sebastian Dunst, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Michael Rothe, Frank R Heinzel, Alexander Krannich, Erin E Kershaw, Dieter Beule, P Christian Schulze, Nikolaus Marx, Ulrich Kintscher

    Abstract

    Adipose tissue lipolysis occurs during the development of heart failure as a consequence of chronic adrenergic stimulation. However, the impact of enhanced adipose triacylglycerol hydrolysis mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on cardiac function is unclear. To investigate the role of adipose tissue lipolysis during heart failure, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of ATGL (atATGL-KO). atATGL-KO mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure-mediated cardiac failure. The cardiac mouse lipidome and the human plasma lipidome from healthy controls (n = 10) and patients with systolic heart failure (HFrEF, n = 13) were analyzed by MS-based shotgun lipidomics. TAC-induced increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and diastolic LV inner diameter were significantly attenuated in atATGL-KO mice compared to wild type (wt) -mice. More importantly, atATGL-KO mice were protected against TAC-induced systolic LV failure. Perturbation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of atATGL-KO mice resulted in the prevention of the major cardiac lipidome changes observed after TAC in wt-mice. Profound changes occurred in the lipid class of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in which multiple PE-species were markedly induced in failing wt-hearts, which was attenuated in atATGL-KO hearts. Moreover, selected heart failure-induced PE species in mouse hearts were also induced in plasma samples from patients with chronic heart failure. TAC-induced cardiac PE induction resulted in decreased PC/ PE-species ratios associated with increased apoptotic marker expression in failing wt-hearts, a process absent in atATGL-KO hearts. Perturbation of adipose tissue lipolysis by ATGL-deficiency ameliorated pressure-induced heart failure and the potentially deleterious cardiac lipidome changes that accompany this pathological process, namely the induction of specific PE species. Non-cardiac ATGL-mediated modulation of the cardiac lipidome may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure.

    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007171

    publications
    human, clinical, organ/tissue, biomarker, mouse, cells, plasma/serum, CVD
  18. Current Biology, 2017

    18Cell Size and Growth Rate Are Modulated by TORC2-Dependent Signals

    Rafael Lucena, Maria Alcaide-Gavilán, Katherine Schubert, Maybo He, Matthew G Domnauer, Catherine Marquer, Christian Klose, Michal A Surma, Douglas R Kellogg

    Abstract

    The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that cannot make ceramides fail to modulate their growth rate or size in response to changes in nutrients. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2A[Rts1]) is embedded in a feedback loop that controls TORC2 signaling and helps set the level of TORC2 signaling to match nutrient availability. Together, the data suggest a model in which growth rate and cell size are mechanistically linked by ceramide-dependent signals arising from the TORC2 network.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.069

    publications
    cells, yeast, basic science
  19. Journal of Lipid Research, 2017

    19Harmonizing lipidomics: NIST interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using SRM 1950–Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma

    John A Bowden, Alan Heckert, Candice Z Ulmer, Christina M Jones, Jeremy P Koelmel, Laila Abdullah, Linda Ahonen, Yazen Alnouti, Aaron M Armando, John M Asara, Takeshi Bamba, John R Barr, Jonas Bergquist, Christoph H Borchers, Joost Brandsma, Susanne B Breitkopf, Tomas Cajka, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Antonio Checa, Michelle A Cinel, Romain A Colas, Serge Cremers, Edward A Dennis, James E Evans, Alexander Fauland, Oliver Fiehn, Michael S Gardner, Timothy J Garrett, Katherine H Gotlinger, Jun Han, Yingying Huang, Aveline Huipeng Neo, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Yoshihiro Izumi, Hongfeng Jiang, Houli Jiang, Jiang Jiang, Maureen Kachman, Reiko Kiyonami, Kristaps Klavins, Christian Klose, Harald C Köfeler, Johan Kolmert, Therese Koal, Grielof Koster, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, Irwin J Kurland, Michael Leadley, Karen Lin, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Danielle McDougall, Peter J Meikle, Natalie A Mellett, Cian Monnin, M Arthur Moseley, Renu Nandakumar, Matej Oresic, Rainey Patterson, David Peake, Jason S Pierce, Martin Post, Anthony D Postle, Rebecca Pugh, Yunping Qiu, Oswald Quehenberger, Parsram Ramrup, Jon Rees, Barbara Rembiesa, Denis Reynaud, Mary R Roth, Susanne Sales, Kai Schuhmann, Michal Laniado Schwartzman, Charles N Serhan, Andrej Shevchenko, Stephen E Somerville, Lisa St. John-Williams, Michal A Surma, Hiroaki Takeda, Rhishikesh Thakare, J Will Thompson, Federico Torta, Alexander Triebl, Martin Trötzmüller, S J Kumari Ubhayasekera, Dajana Vuckovic, Jacquelyn M Weir, Ruth Welti, Markus R Wenk, Craig E Wheelock, Libin Yao, Min Yuan, Xueqing H Zhao, Senlin Zhou

    Abstract

    As the lipidomics field continues to advance, self-evaluation within the community is critical. Here, we performed an interlaboratory comparison exercise for lipidomics using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1950–Metabolites in Frozen Human Plasma, a commercially available reference material. The interlaboratory study comprised 31 diverse laboratories, with each laboratory using a different lipidomics workflow. A total of 1,527 unique lipids were measured across all laboratories and consensus location estimates and associated uncertainties were determined for 339 of these lipids measured at the sum composition level by five or more participating laboratories. These evaluated lipids detected in SRM 1950 serve as community-wide benchmarks for intra- and interlaboratory quality control and method validation. These analyses were performed using nonstandardized laboratory-independent workflows. The consensus locations were also compared with a previous examination of SRM 1950 by the LIPID MAPS consortium. While the central theme of the interlaboratory study was to provide values to help harmonize lipids, lipid mediators, and precursor measurements across the community, it was also initiated to stimulate a discussion regarding areas in need of improvement.

    doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M079012

    publications
    human, plasma/serum, technology
  20. Nature Communications, 2017

    20Machine learning meets complex networks via coalescent embedding in the hyperbolic space

    Alessandro Muscoloni, Josephine M Thomas, Sara Ciucci, Ginestra Bianconi, Carlo V Cannistraci

    Abstract

    Physicists recently observed that realistic complex networks emerge as discrete samples from a continuous hyperbolic geometry enclosed in a circle: the radius represents the node centrality and the angular displacement between two nodes resembles their topological proximity. The hyperbolic circle aims to become a universal space of representation and analysis of many real networks. Yet, inferring the angular coordinates to map a real network back to its latent geometry remains a challenging inverse problem. Here, we show that intelligent machines for unsupervised recognition and visualization of similarities in big data can also infer the network angular coordinates of the hyperbolic model according to a geometrical organization that we term “angular coalescence.” Based on this phenomenon, we propose a class of algorithms that offers fast and accurate “coalescent embedding” in the hyperbolic circle even for large networks. This computational solution to an inverse problem in physics of complex systems favors the application of network latent geometry techniques in disciplines dealing with big network data analysis including biology, medicine, and social science.

    doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01825-5

    publications
    technology
  21. Patent, 2017

    21Means and methods for treatment of early-onset Parkinson’s disease

    Patrik Verstreken, Vanessa A Morais, Melissa Vos

    Abstract

    This application relates to the field of neurodegenerative diseases, more particularly to the field of Parkinson’s disease. In particular, the disclosure describes that inhibitors reducing FAS activity can be used for treatment of Parkinson’s disease, in particular, the treatment of patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease having loss of function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN genes.

    freepatentsonline.com/y2017/0319610.html

    products
    pharma, neuro
  22. Science Advances, 2017

    22ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids direct differentiation of the membrane phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells to potentiate osteogenesis

    Kandice R Levental, Michal A Surma, Allison D Skinkle, Joseph H Lorent, Yong Zhou, Christian Klose, Jeffrey T Chang, John F Hancock, Ilya Levental

    Abstract

    Mammalian cells produce hundreds of dynamically regulated lipid species that are actively turned over and trafficked to produce functional membranes. These lipid repertoires are susceptible to perturbations from dietary sources, with potentially profound physiological consequences. However, neither the lipid repertoires of various cellular membranes, their modulation by dietary fats, nor their effects on cellular phenotypes have been widely explored. We report that differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts or adipocytes results in extensive remodeling of the plasma membrane (PM), producing cell-specific membrane compositions and biophysical properties. The distinct features of osteoblast PMs enabled rational engineering of membrane phenotypes to modulate differentiation in MSCs. Specifically, supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a lipid component characteristic of osteoblast membranes, induced broad lipidomic remodeling in MSCs that reproduced compositional and structural aspects of the osteoblastic PM phenotype. The PM changes induced by DHA supplementation potentiated osteogenic differentiation of MSCs concurrent with enhanced Akt activation at the PM. These observations prompt a model wherein the DHA-induced lipidome leads to more stable membrane microdomains, which serve to increase Akt activity and thereby enhance osteogenic differentiation. More broadly, our investigations suggest a general mechanism by which dietary fats affect cellular physiology through remodeling of membrane lipidomes, biophysical properties, and signaling.

    doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aao1193

    publications
    human, cells, nutrition, organelle, other mammals, basic science
  23. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 2017

    23Lipidomic Changes in Skeletal Muscle in Patients after Biliopancreatic Diversion

    Carola S Mehnert, Juergen Graessler, Virginia Kamvissi-Lorenz, Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James R Casella Mariolo, Giovanni Casella, Geltrude Mingrone, Stefan R Bornstein

    Abstract

    The mechanisms behind the fast improvements of insulin sensitivity and release of the diabetic metabolic state after bariatric surgery are still not completely understood. To further elucidate the effects on the individual cellular level, we applied mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the lipidomic profile of skeletal muscle cells before and after biliopancreatic diversion in six patients. We found a decrease in lipid storage species, mainly triacylglycerides (e. g., TAG 52:2 from 19.84 to 13.26 mol%; p=0.028), and an increase in structural and signaling lipids, including phosphatidylcholines [PC 36:2 (18:1/18:1) from 0.12 to 0.65 mol%; p=0.046], phosphatidylinositols (PI 36:2 from 0.008 to 0.039 mol%; p=0.046), and cardiolipins (CL 72:8 from 0.16 to 1.22 mol%; p=0.043). The proportional increase in structural lipids was directly and the decrease in TAGs was inversely correlated to improved post-operative insulin sensitivity, measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Thus, short-term recovery of insulin sensitivity after biliopancreatic diversion may, beside gut hormonal adaptation, mechanical factors, shifts in the gut microbiome, and changes in bile acid and phospholipid metabolism, additionally be attributed to a metabolic recovery of skeletal muscle cells, reflected by normalization of the cellular lipidomic profile. Further studies are needed to investigate whether improved insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle might be directly associated with the degradation of ectopic triglycerides, thereby reducing the reservoir of lipotoxic intermediates, which might interfere with insulin signaling and hamper mitochondrial metabolism.

    doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120065

    publications
    organ/tissue, human, clinical, diabetes
  24. Journal of Cell Science, 2017

    24Iron affects Ire1 clustering propensity and the amplitude of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling

    Nir Cohen, Michal Breker, Anush Bakunts, Kristina Pesek, Ainara Chas, Josepmaria Argemí, Andrea Orsi, Lihi Gal, Silvia Chuartzman, Yoav Wigelman, Felix Jonas, Peter Walter, Robert Ernst, Tomás Aragón, Eelco van Anken, Maya Schuldiner

    Abstract

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) allows cells to adjust secretory pathway capacity according to need. Ire1, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and central activator of the UPR is conserved from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans. Under ER stress conditions, Ire1 clusters into foci that enable optimal UPR activation. To discover factors that affect Ire1 clustering, we performed a high-content screen using a whole-genome yeast mutant library expressing Ire1–mCherry. We imaged the strains following UPR induction and found 154 strains that displayed alterations in Ire1 clustering. The hits were enriched for iron and heme effectors and binding proteins. By performing pharmacological depletion and repletion, we confirmed that iron (Fe3+) affects UPR activation in both yeast and human cells. We suggest that Ire1 clustering propensity depends on membrane composition, which is governed by heme-dependent biosynthesis of sterols. Our findings highlight the diverse cellular functions that feed into the UPR and emphasize the cross-talk between organelles required to concertedly maintain homeostasis.

    doi.org/10.1242/jcs.201715

    publications
    cells, yeast, basic science
  25. Biophysical Journal, 2017

    25Miscibility Transition Temperature Scales with Growth Temperature in a Zebrafish Cell Line

    Margaret Burns, Kathleen Wisser, Jing Wu, Ilya Levental, Sarah L Veatch

    Abstract

    Cells can alter the lipid content of their plasma membranes upon changes in their environment to maintain and adjust membrane function. Recent work suggests that some membrane functions arise because cellular plasma membranes are poised close to a miscibility transition under growth conditions. Here we report experiments utilizing giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) to explore how membrane transition temperature varies with growth temperature in a zebrafish cell line (ZF4) that can be adapted for growth between 20 and 32°C. We find that GPMV transition temperatures adjust to be 16.7 +/- 1.2°C below growth temperature for four growth temperatures investigated and that adjustment occurs over roughly 2 days when temperature is abruptly lowered from 28 to 20°C. We also find that GPMVs have slightly different lipidomes when isolated from cells adapted for growth at 28 and 20°C. Similar to past work in vesicles derived from mammalian cells, fluctuating domains are observed in ZF4-derived GPMVs, consistent with their having critical membrane compositions. Taken together, these experimental results suggest that cells in culture biologically tune their membrane composition in a way that maintains specific proximity to a critical miscibility transition.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2017.04.052

    publications
    zebrafish, organelle, basic science
  26. Molecular Metabolism, 2017

    26The Munich MIDY Pig Biobank – A unique resource for studying organ crosstalk in diabetes

    Andreas Blutke, Simone Renner, Florian Flenkenthaler, Mattias Backman, Serena Haesner, Elisabeth Kemter, Erik Ländström, Christina Braun-Reichhart, Barbara Albl, Elisabeth Streckel, Birgit Rathkolb, Cornelia Prehn, Alessandra Palladini, Michal Grzybek, Stefan Krebs, Stefan Bauersachs, Andrea Bähr, Andreas Brühschwein, Cornelia A Deeg, Erica De Monte, Michaela Dmochewitz, Caroline Eberle, Daniela Emrich, Robert Fux, Frauke Groth, Sophie Gumbert, Antonia Heitmann, Arne Hinrichs, Barbara Keßler, Mayuko Kurome, Miriam Leipig-Rudolph, Kaspar Matiasek, Horst D Reichenbach, Hazal Öztürk, Christiane Otzdorff, Myriam Reichenbach, Alexandra Rieger, Birte Rieseberg, Marco Rosati, Manuel N Saucedo, Anna Schleicher, Marlon R Schneider, Kilian Simmet, Judith Steinmetz, Nicole Übel, Patrizia Zehetmaier, Andreas Jung, Jerzy Adamski, Ünal Coskun, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Christian Simmet, Mathias Ritzmann, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Helmut Blum, Georg J Arnold, Thomas Fröhlich, Rüdiger Wanke, Eckhard Wolf

    Abstract

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated complications is steadily increasing. As a resource for studying systemic consequences of chronic insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia, we established a comprehensive biobank of long-term diabetic INSC94Y transgenic pigs, a model of mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), and of wild-type (WT) littermates.

    Female MIDY pigs (n = 4) were maintained with suboptimal insulin treatment for 2 years, together with female WT littermates (n = 5). Plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucagon levels were regularly determined using specific immunoassays. In addition, clinical chemical, targeted metabolomics, and lipidomics analyses were performed. At age 2 years, all pigs were euthanized, necropsied, and a broad spectrum of tissues was taken by systematic uniform random sampling procedures. Total beta cell volume was determined by stereological methods. A pilot proteome analysis of pancreas, liver, and kidney cortex was performed by label free proteomics.

    MIDY pigs had elevated fasting plasma glucose and fructosamine concentrations, C-peptide levels that decreased with age and were undetectable at 2 years, and an 82% reduced total beta cell volume compared to WT. Plasma glucagon and beta hydroxybutyrate levels of MIDY pigs were chronically elevated, reflecting hallmarks of poorly controlled diabetes in humans. In total, ∼1900 samples of different body fluids (blood, serum, plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and synovial fluid) as well as ∼17,000 samples from ∼50 different tissues and organs were preserved to facilitate a plethora of morphological and molecular analyses. Principal component analyses of plasma targeted metabolomics and lipidomics data and of proteome profiles from pancreas, liver, and kidney cortex clearly separated MIDY and WT samples.

    The broad spectrum of well-defined biosamples in the Munich MIDY Pig Biobank that will be available to the scientific community provides a unique resource for systematic studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes in a multi-organ, multi-omics dimension.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2017.06.004

    publications
    plasma/serum, diabetes, other mammals
  27. The FASEB Journal, 2017

    27Lipin-1 regulation of phospholipid synthesis maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and is critical for triple-negative breast cancer cell survival

    Jingquan He, Feng Zhang, Li W R Tay, Salome Boroda, Weiqi Nian, Kandice R Levental, Ilya Levental, Thurl E Harris, Jeffrey T Chang, Guangwei Du

    Abstract

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to increase the synthesis of macromolecules for rapid proliferation. Compared to fatty acids, much less is known about the synthesis of phospholipids, which is essential for membrane biogenesis in cancer cells. We found that LPIN1, which encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) controlling the rate-limiting step in the phospholipid synthesis pathway, is highly up-regulated in basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Moreover, high LPIN1 expression correlates with the poor prognosis of these patients. Knockdown of LPIN1 increases apoptosis in basal-like TNBC cell lines, whereas it has minimal or less effect on normal human mammary gland epithelial cells (HMECs) and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines. Fatty acid incorporation and lipidomics analyses showed that LPIN1 knockdown blocks phospholipid synthesis and changes membrane lipid compositions that ultimately induce the activation of 1 of the 3 branches of unfolded protein responses, the inositol-requiring enzyme-1α pathway. We also show for the first time, to our knowledge, that lipin-1 knockdown significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft breast mouse model. Our results suggest that lipin-1 is a potential target for cancer therapy.

    doi.org/10.1096/fj.201601353R

    publications
    human, cells, cancer
  28. White Paper Series, 2017

    28Big Data Lipidomics

    Mathias J Gerl, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Ronny Herzog, Kai Simons

    Abstract

    Lipidomics is the large-scale study of lipids in biological systems. The analysis of large datasets, potentially containing up to thousands of lipidomes, is a challenging endeavour. We have established multiparametric statistical approaches, tailored to quantify lipid data. These methods are geared to identify lipid biomarkers. In this white paper a cohort of healthy subjects is compared with a cohort of diseased persons to identify lipid signatures that discriminate health from disease. Such signatures could potentially be useful for disease stratification or for diagnosis by means of predictive modelling (machine learning).

    In this white paper, we will guide you through the data analysis process aiming at the identification of lipid biomarkers and the evaluations of their performance.

    lipotype.com/big-data-lipidomics/

    white papers
    human, biomarker, plasma/serum, technology
  29. Scientific Reports, 2017

    29Heritability and responses to high fat diet of plasma lipidomics in a twin study

    Turid Frahnow, Martin A Osterhoff, Silke Hornemann, Michael Kruse, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Andreas F H Pfeiffer

    Abstract

    Lipidomics have a great potential as clinical tool for monitoring metabolic changes in health and disease. Nevertheless hardly anything is known about the heritability of lipids. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify how and how much we can affect these progresses in individuals. In our interventional twin study (46 healthy, non-obese twin pairs) we investigated the lipid profile in plasma samples after switching from a low fat diet to an isocaloric high fat diet (HFD) to characterize the metabolic adaptation. Additionally we used the ACE model for Additive genetics, Common and unique Environment as well as linear mixed modelling to analyse the heritability of lipids. The heritability of lipids varied between 0–62% and applied to lipid species rather than to lipid classes. Phospholipids showed the highest inheritance. In addition, sex, body mass index (BMI) and age were important modifiers. The lipid profile changed already after one week of HFD and diverged further after 5 weeks of additional HFD. Basal concentrations of specific lipids within phospholipids are strongly inherited and are likely to be associated with heritable disease risks. BMI, sex and age were major modifiers. Nutrition strongly alters specific lipid classes, and has to be controlled in clinical association studies.

    doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03965-6

    publications
    clinical, human, nutrition, plasma/serum
  30. Patent, 2017

    30Methods and compositions of chondrisomes

    Geoffrey A Von Maltzahn, John M Milwid, Michael Mee, Jacob Rosenblum-Rubens, David Chess, Kyle Trudeau, Kiana Mahdaviani, Jacob Feala

    Abstract

    Mitochondria are membrane bound subcellular structures found in eukaryotic cells. Sometimes described as the power plants of cells, mitochondria generate most of the energy of the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through respiration. Damage and subsequent dysfunction of mitochondria are important factors in a range of human diseases. Described herein are novel preparations of chondrisomes derived from mitochondria, and related methods, that have advantageous and surprising qualities for use in human pharmaceutical and in veterinary applications. Chondrisome preparations and methods described herein have beneficial structural characteristics, yield, concentration, stability, viability, integrity, or function, e.g. bioenergetic or biological function, for use in therapeutic applications.

    freepatentsonline.com/y2017/0151287.html

    products
    pharma, technology
  31. Scientific Reports, 2017

    31Enlightening discriminative network functional modules behind Principal Component Analysis separation in differential-omic science studies

    Sara Ciucci, Yan Ge, Claudio Durán, Alessandra Palladini, Víctor Jiménez-Jiménez, Luisa M Martínez-Sánchez, Yuting Wang, Susanne Sales, Andrej Shevchenko, Steven W Poser, Maik Herbig, Oliver Otto, Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis, Jochen Guck, Mathias J Gerl, Carlo V Cannistraci

    Abstract

    Omic science is rapidly growing and one of the most employed techniques to explore differential patterns in omic datasets is principal component analysis (PCA). However, a method to enlighten the network of omic features that mostly contribute to the sample separation obtained by PCA is missing. An alternative is to build correlation networks between univariately-selected significant omic features, but this neglects the multivariate unsupervised feature compression responsible for the PCA sample segregation. Biologists and medical researchers often prefer effective methods that offer an immediate interpretation to complicated algorithms that in principle promise an improvement but in practice are difficult to be applied and interpreted. Here we present PC-corr: a simple algorithm that associates to any PCA segregation a discriminative network of features. Such network can be inspected in search of functional modules useful in the definition of combinatorial and multiscale biomarkers from multifaceted omic data in systems and precision biomedicine. We offer proofs of PC-corr efficacy on lipidomic, metagenomic, developmental genomic, population genetic, cancer promoteromic and cancer stem-cell mechanomic data. Finally, PC-corr is a general functional network inference approach that can be easily adopted for big data exploration in computer science and analysis of complex systems in physics.

    doi.org/10.1038/srep43946

    publications
    technology
  32. Whitepaper Series, 2017

    32Skin Lipidomics

    Tomasz Sadowski, Christian Klose, Mathias J Gerl, Anna Wójcik-Maciejewicz, Ronny Herzog, Kai Simons, Adam Reich, Michal A Surma

    Abstract

    The lipid composition of human skin is essential for its function. However, the simultaneous quantification of a wide range of stratum corneum and sebaceous lipids is not trivial. We developed and validated a quantitative high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry-based platform for lipid analysis of tape-stripped skin samples. Lipotype analyzes also other types of skin samples, from monolayers to 3D models. It is now easy to investigate how the healthy skin lipidome is composed, how it changes in diseases or upon intervention with a drug or a cosmetic product. This lipidomic data can be used for cosmetic claim support, topical drug development and personalized cosmetics.

    lipotype.com/lipotype-skin-lipidomics/

    white papers
    cosmetics, human, skin, technology
  33. Scientific Reports, 2017

    33Large-scale human skin lipidomics by quantitative, high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry

    Tomasz Sadowski, Christian Klose, Mathias J Gerl, Anna Wójcik-Maciejewicz, Ronny Herzog, Kai Simons, Adam Reich, Michal A Surma

    Abstract

    The lipid composition of human skin is essential for its function; however the simultaneous quantification of a wide range of stratum corneum (SC) and sebaceous lipids is not trivial. We developed and validated a quantitative high-throughput shotgun mass spectrometry-based platform for lipid analysis of tape-stripped SC skin samples. It features coverage of 16 lipid classes; total quantification to the level of individual lipid molecules; high reproducibility and high-throughput capabilities. With this method we conducted a large lipidomic survey of 268 human SC samples, where we investigated the relationship between sampling depth and lipid composition, lipidome variability in samples from 14 different sampling sites on the human body and finally, we assessed the impact of age and sex on lipidome variability in 104 healthy subjects. We found sebaceous lipids to constitute an abundant component of the SC lipidome as they diffuse into the topmost SC layers forming a gradient. Lipidomic variability with respect to sampling depth, site and subject is considerable, and mainly accredited to sebaceous lipids, while stratum corneum lipids vary less. This stresses the importance of sampling design and the role of sebaceous lipids in skin studies.

    doi.org/10.1038/srep43761

    publications
    cosmetics, human, skin, technology
  34. PLOS ONE, 2017

    34Lipidomic approach for stratification of acute myeloid leukemia patients

    Adam Stefanko, Christian Thiede, Gerhard Ehninger, Kai Simons, Michal Grzybek

    Abstract

    The pathogenesis and progression of many tumors, including hematologic malignancies is highly dependent on enhanced lipogenesis. De novo fatty-acid synthesis permits accelerated proliferation of tumor cells by providing membrane components but these may also alter physicochemical properties of lipid bilayers, which can impact signaling or even increase drug resistance in cancer cells. Cancer type-specific lipid profiles would permit us to monitor and interpret actual effects of lipid changes, potential fingerprints of individual tumors to be explored as diagnostic markers. We have used the shotgun MS approach to identify lipid patterns in different types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients that either show no karyotype change or belong to t(8;21) or inv16 types. Differences in lipidomes of t(8;21) and inv(16) patients, as compared to AML patients without karyotype change, presented mostly as substantial modulation of ceramide/sphingolipid synthesis. Furthermore, between the t(8;21) and all other patients we observed significant changes in physicochemical membrane properties. These were related to a marked alteration in lipid saturation levels. The discovered differences in lipid profiles of various AML types improve our understanding of the pathobiochemical pathways involved and may serve in the development of diagnostic tools.

    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168781

    publications
    human, clinical, biomarker, cells, cancer
  35. Scientific Reports, 2017

    35A novel approach to analyze lysosomal dysfunctions through subcellular proteomics and lipidomics: the case of NPC1 deficiency

    Arun K Tharkeshwar, Jesse Trekker, Wendy Vermeire, Jarne Pauwels, Ragna Sannerud, David A Priestman, Danielle te Vruchte, Katlijn Vints, Pieter Baatsen, Jean-Paul Decuypere, Huiqi Lu, Shaun Martin, Peter Vangheluwe, Johannes V Swinnen, Liesbet Lagae, Francis Impens, Frances M Platt, Kris Gevaert, Wim Annaert

    Abstract

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have mainly been used as cellular carriers for genes and therapeutic products, while their use in subcellular organelle isolation remains underexploited. We engineered SPIONs targeting distinct subcellular compartments. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated SPIONs are internalized and accumulate in late endosomes/lysosomes, while aminolipid-SPIONs reside at the plasma membrane. These features allowed us to establish standardized magnetic isolation procedures for these membrane compartments with a yield and purity permitting proteomic and lipidomic profiling. We validated our approach by comparing the biomolecular compositions of lysosomes and plasma membranes isolated from wild-type and Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) deficient cells. While the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids is seen as a primary hallmark of NPC1 deficiency, our lipidomics analysis revealed the buildup of several species of glycerophospholipids and other storage lipids in selectively late endosomes/lysosomes of NPC1-KO cells. While the plasma membrane proteome remained largely invariable, we observed pronounced alterations in several proteins linked to autophagy and lysosomal catabolism reflecting vesicular transport obstruction and defective lysosomal turnover resulting from NPC1 deficiency. Thus the use of SPIONs provides a major advancement in fingerprinting subcellular compartments, with an increased potential to identify disease-related alterations in their biomolecular compositions.

    doi.org/10.1038/srep41408

    publications
    human, cells, organelle, basic science
  36. Journal of Cell Biology, 2017

    36Cardiolipin promotes electron transport between ubiquinone and complex I to rescue PINK1 deficiency

    Melissa Vos, Ann Geens, Claudia Böhm, Liesbeth Deaulmerie, Jef Swerts, Matteo Rossi, Katleen Craessaerts, Elvira P Leites, Philip Seibler, Aleksandar Rakovic, Thora Lohnau, Bart De Strooper, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Vanessa A Morais, Christine Klein, Patrik Verstreken

    Abstract

    PINK1 is mutated in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and mutations cause mitochondrial defects that include inefficient electron transport between complex I and ubiquinone. Neurodegeneration is also connected to changes in lipid homeostasis, but how these are related to PINK1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is unknown. Based on an unbiased genetic screen, we found that partial genetic and pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) suppresses toxicity induced by PINK1 deficiency in flies, mouse cells, patient-derived fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons. Lower FASN activity in PINK1 mutants decreases palmitate levels and increases the levels of cardiolipin (CL), a mitochondrial inner membrane–specific lipid. Direct supplementation of CL to isolated mitochondria not only rescues the PINK1-induced complex I defects but also rescues the inefficient electron transfer between complex I and ubiquinone in specific mutants. Our data indicate that genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FASN to increase CL levels bypasses the enzymatic defects at complex I in a PD model.

    doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201511044

    publications
    mouse, organelle, pharma, neuro
  37. Cell, 2016

    37Lipid-Sorting Specificity Encoded in K-Ras Membrane Anchor Regulates Signal Output

    Yong Zhou, Priyanka Prakash, Hong Liang, Kwang-Jin Cho, Alemayehu A Gorfe, John F Hancock

    Abstract

    K-Ras is targeted to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal membrane anchor that comprises a farnesyl-cysteine-methyl-ester and a polybasic domain. We used quantitative spatial imaging and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine molecular details of K-Ras plasma membrane binding. We found that the K-Ras anchor binds selected plasma membrane anionic lipids with defined head groups and lipid side chains. The precise amino acid sequence and prenyl group define a combinatorial code for lipid binding that extends beyond simple electrostatics; within this code lysine and arginine residues are non-equivalent and prenyl chain length modifies nascent polybasic domain lipid preferences. The code is realized by distinct dynamic tertiary structures of the anchor on the plasma membrane that govern amino acid side-chain-lipid interactions. An important consequence of this specificity is the ability of such anchors when aggregated to sort subsets of phospholipids into nanoclusters with defined lipid compositions that determine K-Ras signaling output.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.059

    publications
    cells, other mammals, basic science
  38. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2016

    38Dissecting Torsin/cofactor function at the nuclear envelope: a genetic study

    Ethan Laudermilch, Pei-Ling Tsai, Morven Graham, Elizabeth Turner, Chenguang Zhao, Christian Schlieker

    Abstract

    The human genome encodes four Torsin ATPases, the functions of which are poorly understood. In this study, we use CRISPR/Cas9 engineering to delete all four Torsin ATPases individually and in combination. Using nuclear envelope (NE) blebbing as a phenotypic measure, we establish a direct correlation between the number of inactivated Torsin alleles and the occurrence of omega-shaped herniations within the lumen of the NE. A similar, although not identical, redundancy is observed for LAP1 and LULL1, which serve as regulatory cofactors for a subset of Torsin ATPases. Unexpectedly, deletion of Tor2A in a TorA/B/3A-deficient background results in a stark increase of bleb formation, even though Tor2A does not respond to LAP1/LULL1 stimulation. The robustness of the observed phenotype in Torsin-deficient cells enables a structural analysis via electron microscopy tomography and a compositional analysis via immunogold labeling. Ubiquitin and nucleoporins were identified as distinctively localizing components of the omega-shaped bleb structure. These findings suggest a functional link between the Torsin/cofactor system and NE/nuclear pore complex biogenesis or homeostasis and establish a Torsin-deficient cell line as a valuable experimental platform with which to decipher Torsin function.

    doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E16-07-0511

    publications
    human, organelle, basic science
  39. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2016

    39Identification of Shared and Unique Serum Lipid Profiles in Diabetes Mellitus and Myocardial Infarction

    Sanela Kjellqvist, Christian Klose, Michal A Surma, Geroge Hindy, Ines G Mollet, Anna Johansson, Patrick Chavaux, Johan Gottfries, Kai Simons, Olle Melander, Céline Fernandez

    Abstract

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease are associated with dyslipidemia, but the detailed lipid molecular pattern in both diseases remains unknown.

    We used shotgun mass spectrometry to determine serum levels of 255 molecular lipids in 316 controls, 171 DM, and 99 myocardial infarction (MI) events from a cohort derived from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Orthogonal projections to latent structures analyses were conducted between the lipids and clinical parameters describing DM or MI. Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) and elongation of very long chain fatty acid protein 5 (ELOVL5) activities were estimated by calculating product to precursor ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids in complex lipids. FADS genotypes encoding these desaturases were then tested for association with lipid levels and ratios. Differences in the levels of lipids belonging to the phosphatidylcholine and triacylglyceride (TAG) classes contributed the most to separating DM from controls. TAGs also played a dominating role in discriminating MI from controls. Levels of C18:2 fatty acids in complex lipids were lower both in DM and MI versus controls (DM, P=0.004; MI, P=6.0E‐06) at least due to an acceleration in the metabolic flux from C18:2 to C20:4 (eg, increased estimated ELOVL5: DM, P=0.02; MI, P=0.04, and combined elongase‐desaturase activities: DM, P=3.0E‐06; MI, P=2.0E‐06). Minor allele carriers of FADS genotypes were associated with increased levels of C18:2 (P≤0.007) and lower desaturase activity (P≤0.002).

    We demonstrate a possible relationship between decreased levels of C18:2 in complex lipids and DM or MI. We thereby highlight the importance of molecular lipids in the pathogenesis of both diseases.

    doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.004503

    publications
    human, biomarker, plasma/serum, diabetes, CVD
  40. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2016

    40Domain Stability in Biomimetic Membranes Driven by Lipid Polyunsaturation

    Xubo Lin, Joseph H Lorent, Allison D Skinkle, Kandice R Levental, M Neal Waxham, Alemayehu A Gorfe, Ilya Levental

    Abstract

    Biological membranes contain a broad variety of lipid species whose individual physicochemical properties and collective interactions ultimately determine membrane organization. A key aspect of the organization of cellular membranes is their lateral subdivision into domains of distinct structure and composition. The most widely studied membrane domains are lipid rafts, which are the biological manifestations of liquid-ordered phases that form in sterol-containing membranes. Detailed studies of biomimetic membrane mixtures have yielded wide-ranging insights into the physical principles behind lipid rafts; however, these simplified models do not fully capture the diversity and complexity of the mammalian lipidome, most notably in their exclusion of polyunsaturated lipids. Here, we assess the role of lipid acyl chain unsaturation as a driving force for phase separation using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations validated by model membrane experiments. The clear trends in our observations and good qualitative agreements between simulations and experiments support the conclusions that highly unsaturated lipids promote liquid–liquid domain stability by enhancing the differences in cholesterol content and lipid chain order between the coexisting domains. These observations reveal the important role of noncanonical biological lipids in the physical properties of membranes, showing that lipid polyunsaturation is a driving force for liquid–liquid phase separation.

    doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b06815

    publications
    organelle, other mammals, basic science
  41. Oncotarget, 2016

    41The anti-tumor drug 2-hydroxyoleic acid (Minerval) stimulates signaling and retrograde transport

    Maria L Torgersen, Tove Irene Klokk, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig

    Abstract

    2-hydroxyoleic acid (OHOA, Minerval®) is an example of a substance used for membrane lipid therapy, where the cellular membranes rather than specific proteins constitute the therapeutical target. OHOA is thought to mediate its anti-tumor effect by affecting the biophysical properties of membranes, which leads to altered recruitment and activation of amphitropic proteins, altered cellular signaling, and eventual cell death. Little is known about the initial signaling events upon treatment with OHOA, and whether the altered membrane properties would have any impact on the dynamic intracellular transport system. In the present study we demonstrate that treatment with OHOA led to a rapid release of intracellular calcium and activation of multiple signaling pathways in HeLa cells, including the PI3K-AKT1-MTOR pathway and several MAP kinases, in a process independent of the EGFR. By lipidomics we confirmed that OHOA was incorporated into several lipid classes. Concomitantly, OHOA potently increased retrograde transport of the plant toxin ricin from endosomes to the Golgi and further to the endoplasmic reticulum. The OHOA-stimulated ricin transport seemed to require several amphitropic proteins, including Src, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and also Ca2+/calmodulin. Interestingly, OHOA induced a slight increase in endosomal localization of the retromer component VPS35. Thus, our data show that addition of a lipid known to alter membrane properties not only affects signaling, but also intracellular transport.

    doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13508

    publications
    human, cells, pharma, cancer
  42. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2016

    42Remodeling of the postsynaptic plasma membrane during neural development

    Karolina Tulodziecka, Barbara B Diaz-Rohrer, Madeline M Farley, Robin B Chan, Gilbert Di Paolo, Kandice R Levental, M Neal Waxham, Ilya Levental

    Abstract

    Neuronal synapses are the fundamental units of neural signal transduction and must maintain exquisite signal fidelity while also accommodating the plasticity that underlies learning and development. To achieve these goals, the molecular composition and spatial organization of synaptic terminals must be tightly regulated; however, little is known about the regulation of lipid composition and organization in synaptic membranes. Here we quantify the comprehensive lipidome of rat synaptic membranes during postnatal development and observe dramatic developmental lipidomic remodeling during the first 60 postnatal days, including progressive accumulation of cholesterol, plasmalogens, and sphingolipids. Further analysis of membranes associated with isolated postsynaptic densities (PSDs) suggests the PSD-associated postsynaptic plasma membrane (PSD-PM) as one specific location of synaptic remodeling. We analyze the biophysical consequences of developmental remodeling in reconstituted synaptic membranes and observe remarkably stable microdomains, with the stability of domains increasing with developmental age. We rationalize the developmental accumulation of microdomain-forming lipids in synapses by proposing a mechanism by which palmitoylation of the immobilized scaffold protein PSD-95 nucleates domains at the postsynaptic plasma membrane. These results reveal developmental changes in lipid composition and palmitoylation that facilitate the formation of postsynaptic membrane microdomains, which may serve key roles in the function of the neuronal synapse.

    doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E16-06-0420

    publications
    organelle, neuro, other mammals
  43. BIOspektrum, 2016

    43Shotgun Lipidomics in der biomedizinischen und klinischen Forschung

    Christian Klose, Ünal Coskun

    Abstract

    Shotgun lipidomics is the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the lipid composition of biological and clinical samples. Here we describe the application and performance of the Lipotype shotgun lipidomics technology in clinical high throughput screening projects for the identification of disease-specific lipid patterns as well as in organ-wide analysis aiming at the systemic understanding of lipid-related physiological processes.

    doi.org/10.1007/s12268-016-0739-3

    publications
    clinical, biomarker, technology
  44. Plant Physiology, 2016

    44Lack of FTSH4 Protease Affects Protein Carbonylation, Mitochondrial Morphology, and Phospholipid Content in Mitochondria of Arabidopsis: New Insights into a Complex Interplay

    Elwira Smakowska, Renata Skibior-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata Czarna, Marta Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata Kwasniak-Owczarek, Katarzyna Parys, Christiane Funk, Hanna Janska

    Abstract

    FTSH4 is one of the inner membrane-embedded ATP-dependent metalloproteases in mitochondria of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In mutants impaired to express FTSH4, carbonylated proteins accumulated and leaf morphology was altered when grown under a short-day photoperiod, at 22°C, and a long-day photoperiod, at 30°C. To provide better insight into the function of FTSH4, we compared the mitochondrial proteomes and oxyproteomes of two ftsh4 mutants and wild-type plants grown under conditions inducing the phenotypic alterations. Numerous proteins from various submitochondrial compartments were observed to be carbonylated in the ftsh4 mutants, indicating a widespread oxidative stress. One of the reasons for the accumulation of carbonylated proteins in ftsh4 was the limited ATP-dependent proteolytic capacity of ftsh4 mitochondria, arising from insufficient ATP amount, probably as a result of an impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), especially complex V. In ftsh4, we further observed giant, spherical mitochondria coexisting among normal ones. Both effects, the increased number of abnormal mitochondria and the decreased stability/activity of the OXPHOS complexes, were probably caused by the lower amount of the mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin. We postulate that the reduced cardiolipin content in ftsh4 mitochondria leads to perturbations within the OXPHOS complexes, generating more reactive oxygen species and less ATP, and to the deregulation of mitochondrial dynamics, causing in consequence the accumulation of oxidative damage.

    doi.org/10.1104/pp.16.00370

    publications
    organelle, plants, basic science
  45. Developmental Cell, 2016

    45Torsins Are Essential Regulators of Cellular Lipid Metabolism

    Micheline Grillet, Beatriz Dominguez Gonzalez, Adria Sicart, Maria Pöttler, Ana Cascalho, Karolien Billion, Sergio Hernandez Diaz, Jef Swerts, Teresa V Naismith, Natalia V Gounko, Patrik Verstreken, Phyllis I Hanson, Rose E Goodchild

    Abstract

    Torsins are developmentally essential AAA+ proteins, and mutation of human torsinA causes the neurological disease DYT1 dystonia. They localize in the ER membranes, but their cellular function remains unclear. We now show that dTorsin is required in Drosophila adipose tissue, where it suppresses triglyceride levels, promotes cell growth, and elevates membrane lipid content. We also see that human torsinA at the inner nuclear membrane is associated with membrane expansion and elevated cellular lipid content. Furthermore, the key lipid metabolizing enzyme, lipin, is mislocalized in dTorsin-KO cells, and dTorsin increases levels of the lipin substrate, phosphatidate, and reduces the product, diacylglycerol. Finally, genetic suppression of dLipin rescues dTorsin-KO defects, including adipose cell size, animal growth, and survival. These findings identify that torsins are essential regulators of cellular lipid metabolism and implicate disturbed lipid biology in childhood-onset DYT1 dystonia.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2016.06.017

    publications
    organ/tissue, fly, neuro
  46. Biophysical Journal, 2016

    46Polyunsaturated Lipids Regulate Membrane Domain Stability by Tuning Membrane Order

    Kandice R Levental, Joseph H Lorent, Xubo Lin, Allison D Skinkle, Michal A Surma, Emily A Stockenbojer, Alemayehu A Gorfe, Ilya Levental

    Abstract

    The plasma membrane (PM) serves as the functional interface between a cell and its environment, hosting extracellular signal transduction and nutrient transport among a variety of other processes. To support this extensive functionality, PMs are organized into lateral domains, including ordered, lipid-driven assemblies termed lipid rafts. Although the general requirements for ordered domain formation are well established, how these domains are regulated by cell-endogenous mechanisms or exogenous perturbations has not been widely addressed. In this context, an intriguing possibility is that dietary fats can incorporate into membrane lipids to regulate the properties and physiology of raft domains. Here, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fats on the organization of membrane domains across a spectrum of membrane models, including computer simulations, synthetic lipid membranes, and intact PMs isolated from mammalian cells. We observe that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is robustly incorporated into membrane lipids, and this incorporation leads to significant remodeling of the PM lipidome. Across model systems, docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids enhance the stability of ordered raft domains by increasing the order difference between them and coexisting nonraft domains. The relationship between interdomain order disparity and the stability of phase separation holds for a spectrum of different perturbations, including manipulation of cholesterol levels and high concentrations of exogenous amphiphiles, suggesting it as a general feature of the organization of biological membranes. These results demonstrate that polyunsaturated fats affect the composition and organization of biological membranes, suggesting a potential mechanism for the extensive effects of dietary fat on health and disease.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2016.03.012

    publications
    nutrition, organelle, other mammals, basic science
  47. Nature Cell Biology, 2016

    47Control of plasma membrane lipid homeostasis by the extended synaptotagmins

    Yasunori Saheki, Xin Bian, Curtis M Schauder, Yujin Sawaki, Michal A Surma, Christian Klose, Frederic Pincet, Karin M Reinisch, Pietro De Camilli

    Abstract

    Acute metabolic changes in plasma membrane (PM) lipids, such as those mediating signalling reactions, are rapidly compensated by homeostatic responses whose molecular basis is poorly understood. Here we show that the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that function as PtdIns(4,5)P2– and Ca2+-regulated tethers to the PM, participate in these responses. E-Syts transfer glycerolipids between bilayers in vitro, and this transfer requires Ca2+ and their lipid-harbouring SMP domain. Genome-edited cells lacking E-Syts do not exhibit abnormalities in the major glycerolipids at rest, but exhibit enhanced and sustained accumulation of PM diacylglycerol following PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis by PLC activation, which can be rescued by expression of E-Syt1, but not by mutant E-Syt1 lacking the SMP domain. The formation of E-Syt-dependent ER–PM tethers in response to stimuli that cleave PtdIns(4,5)P2 and elevate Ca2+ may help reverse accumulation of diacylglycerol in the PM by transferring it to the ER for metabolic recycling.

    doi.org/10.1038/ncb3339

    publications
    human, cells, organelle, basic science
  48. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 2015

    48An automated shotgun lipidomics platform for high throughput, comprehensive, and quantitative analysis of blood plasma intact lipids

    Michal A Surma, Ronny Herzog, Andrej Vasilj, Christian Klose, Nicolas Christinat, Delphine Morin‐Rivron, Kai Simons, Mojgan Masoodi, Júlio L Sampaio

    Abstract

    Blood plasma has gained protagonism in lipidomics studies due to its availability, uncomplicated collection and preparation, and informative readout of physiological status. At the same time, it is also technically challenging to analyze due to its complex lipid composition affected by many factors, which can hamper the throughput and/or lipidomics coverage. To tackle these issues, we developed a comprehensive, high throughput, and quantitative mass spectrometry‐based shotgun lipidomics platform for blood plasma lipid analyses. The main hallmarks of this technology are (i) it is comprehensive, covering 22 quantifiable different lipid classes encompassing more than 200 lipid species; (ii) it is amenable to high‐throughput, with less than 5 min acquisition time allowing the complete analysis of 200 plasma samples per day; (iii) it achieves absolute quantification, by inclusion of internal standards for every lipid class measured; (iv) it is highly reproducible, achieving an average coefficient of variation of <10% (intra‐day), approx. 10% (inter‐day), and approx. 15% (inter‐site) for most lipid species; (v) it is easily transferable allowing the direct comparison of data acquired in different sites. Moreover, we thoroughly assessed the influence of blood stabilization with different anticoagulants and freeze‐thaw cycles to exclude artifacts generated by sample preparation.

    doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201500145

    publications
    human, plasma/serum, technology
  49. Product development, 2014

    49Lipid analysis of microorganisms for production of ingredients for the food, beverage and consumer health sectors

    Abstract

    Evolva has a proprietary, fermentation-based platform that allows radically different approaches to the production of ingredients for the food, beverage and consumer health sectors. As a pioneer and global leader in sustainable, fermentation-based approaches to ingredients, Evolva was interested in the quantitative analysis of the lipid composition of yeast cells and detailed information on the structural and quantitative lipid composition of yeast cells. The information on the lipid composition facilitated strain optimization and adjustments of culture conditions to ensure maximal production efficiency for the compound in question.

    lipotype.com/2014/10/evolva/

    products
    nutrition

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