About the structure and biological function of Sulfatide
Structure. Sulfatides (sulfated galactosyl-ceramides, sulfogalactosylceramides, galactosylceramide-sulfates, SO3-GalCer, or Sulf) are a type of sulfoglycolipids, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a sulfated galactose sugar molecule. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
Sulfatides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system but are vital components of many other organs too. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane.
Function. Sulfatides are a main constituent of myelin, the lipid coating around neuronal axons. Changes in brain sulfatide levels are linked to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and an abnormal sulfatide metabolism has been linked to cancers and autoimmune diseases. They also participate in many cellular processes from protein trafficking to signaling. Further, sulfatides are involved in the regulation of glucose uptake. Antibodies to sulfatides are often present in blood serum before the onset of diabetes.
Neurons & Glia Cells
The brain of mammals is the second-most lipid-rich organ. Lipid analysis of neural cells helps understand its complex structure.
Sulf lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 50|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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