About the structure and biological function of GQ1
Structure. GQ1 ganglioside lipids (GQ1) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a tetra-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of eight sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GQ1 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GQ1 gangliosides belong to the major gangliosides of the mammal brain. In Miller Fisher syndrome, a rare autoimmune nerve disease that is considered to be a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome, patients have a unique antibody against GQ1 lipids. Patients experience paralysis of ocular muscles, absence of reflexes, and lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements. Further, GQ1 levels are reduced in Alzheimer’s models and GQ1 gangliosides have been shown to interact with the cholera toxin.
GQ1 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 10|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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