About the structure and biological function of GM1
Structure. GM1 ganglioside lipids (monosialotetrahexosylgangliosides, GM1) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a mono-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of five sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GM1 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GM1 gangliosides promote differentiation of various neuronal cells. They have protective effects on the neural system by supporting neural stem cell survival and proliferation, regeneration of axons, and inhibiting neurodegeneration through autophagy, cellular “self-eating”. In lipid rafts, GM1 lipids serve a key role in several signaling systems. However, GM1 lipids also act as specific receptors for the cholera toxin. GM1 accumulation leads to GM1 gangliosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease causing generalized symptoms including mental retardation.
GM1 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 25|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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