About the structure and biological function of GD3
Structure. GD3 ganglioside lipids (GD3) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a di-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of four sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GD3 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GD3 gangliosides are fundamental in neurogenesis. They bind to the EGF receptor resulting in the activation of a signaling cascade promoting cell proliferation. This is essential for stem cell self-renewal in the brain. GD3 lipids are critical for apoptosis and autophagy, programmed cell death and cellular “self-eating”. They also serve as precursors of more complex gangliosides. Further, GD3 levels are elevated in melanomas and neuroblastomas, and they are the main gangliosides in early human breast milk.
GD3 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 25|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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