About the structure and biological function of GD2
Structure. GD2 ganglioside lipids (GD2) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a di-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of five sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GD2 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GD2 gangliosides have been linked to many cancers. While only present in trace amounts in normal tissues, GD2 lipids are found at much higher concentrations in cancer cells, especially in melanomas and neuroblastomas. They are considered tumor-associated antigens and the enzyme GD2 synthase is investigated as potential drug target. In neuroblastoma, a GD2 antibody has been approved for treatment in combination with other drugs but they also serve as circulating biomarkers.
GD2 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 25|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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