About the structure and biological function of GD1
Structure. GD1 ganglioside lipids (GD1) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a di-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of six sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GD1 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GD1 gangliosides, at times considered a reserve pool for GM1 lipids, belong to the major gangliosides of the mammal brain. During embryogenesis and the postnatal period the amount of GD1 lipids in the human central nervous system increases up to 15-fold. Further, some GD1 lipids have anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and preventing cytokine activation. In mice, GD1 gangliosides are important for oocyte maturation and fertilization.
GD1 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 25|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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