About the structure and biological function of Gb4
Structure. Gb4 globoside lipids (globo-tetraosylceramides, cytolipin R, or Gb4) are a type of globosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a neutral oligosaccharide unit made of four sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
Gb4 globosides are found in vertebrate cells. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. Gb4 globosides are the main glycolipids found in the cell membrane of human erythrocytes. There, they are important for cellular interactions including blood-type determinants, factors which determine the suitability of donor blood for a patient. Each of the three distinct blood group antigens (A, B, and 0) is defined by a variation of the oligosaccharide unit. Gb4 lipids also act as the receptor for the parvovirus B19, which infects rapidly dividing cells of the intestines and the bone marrow causing (fifth disease) in children.
Gb4 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 10|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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