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CDP-diacylglycerol

About the structure and biological function of CDP-DAG

Structure. CDP-diacylglycerols (cytidine-diphosphate-diglycerides, CDP-diglycerides, or CDP-DAG) are a type of CDP-glycerols, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acids and a cytidine diphosphate molecule (CDP). The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. CDP-DAG lipids occupy a branch point in the biosynthesis of complex glycerolipids. The distinct end-products depend on the subcellular location of synthesis. For example, CDP-DAGs are used for cardiolipin biosynthesis in mitochondria and for phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, CDP-DAG lipids also have a key role in regulation of phosphatidylinositol signal transduction. Further, they are linked to lipid droplet size in adipocytes.

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Cardiolipin

About the structure and biological function of CL

Structure. Cardiolipins (Ptd2Gro, or CL) are a type of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of two diacylglycerophosphates linked to each other via a third glycerol backbone. In total, cardiolipins contain four fatty acids. They can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Cardiolipins are tied to the synthesis of ATP, cellular energy. They are a vital component of cellular membranes whose function is to generate an electrochemical potential, such as mitochondrial membranes. There, they interact with many membrane proteins regulating and controlling their functions. They are also involved in apoptosis and mitophagy, programmed cell death and mitochondrial degradation. Further, cardiolipin aberrations are linked to Barth syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease.

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Lyso-phosphatidyl-serine

About the structure and biological function of LPS

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidyl-serines (LysoPtdSer, LysoPS, or LPS) are a type of glycerophosphoserines, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphoserine molecule. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Lyso-phosphatidyl-serines are mediators in many biological processes, especially those of the immune system of animals. LPS levels are elevated by various inflammatory stimuli and after injury, where it can transmit the information to other cells. Thus they contribute to the resolution of inflammation. Yet, certain LPS lipids have pro-inflammatory reactions. Further, LPS metabolism aberrations are linked to cancers, night blindness, and PHARC, a genetic neurological disorder.

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Lyso-phosphatidyl-inositol

About the structure and biological function of LPI

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidyl-inositols (LysoPtdIns, LysoPI, or LPI) are a type of glycerophosphoinositols, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphoinositol molecule. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Lyso-phosphatidyl-inositols are intermediates in the remodeling of phosphatidylinositols, such as the release of arachidonic acid for eicosanoid biosynthesis. Yet, LPI lipids possess signaling functions on their own. They interact with receptors and stimulate the release of hormones from the pancreas for the regulation of glucose uptake. LPI levels are elevated in highly proliferative cancer cells and serve as biomarkers for poor prognosis in cancer patients. Further, LPIs together with other lysophospholids, are linked to a number of metabolic diseases such as obesity.

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Lyso-phosphatidyl-glycerol

About the structure and biological function of LPG

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidyl-glycerols (LysoPtdGro, LysoPG, or LPG) are a type of glycerophosphoglycerols, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphoglycerol molecule. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Little is known about the function of lyso-phosphatidyl-glycerols in animals. Elevated LPG levels have been detected in acute coronary syndrome and they may be linked to cardiovascular diseases. In bacteria, LPGs are the lipid backbone elements of lipopolysaccharides, structural components of the bacterial capsule which are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Further, LPG lipids serve as precursors for phosphatidylglycerols.

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Lyso-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

About the structure and biological function of LPE

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidyl-ethanolamines (lysocephalins, LysoPtdEtn, LysoPE, or LPE) are a type of glycerophosphoethanolamines, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphoethanolamine molecule. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Lyso-phosphatidyl-ethanolamines are involved in cellular processes such as differentiation and migration of certain neuronal cells, but also of various cancer cells. In plants, LPEs function as inhibitors for a key enzyme in membrane lipid degradation, thus retarding senescence of leaves, flowers, and fruits. They are used commercially to stimulate ripening and extend shelf-life of fruit, and increase vase life of cut flowers. Further, LPE lipids serve as precursors for phosphatidyl-ethanolamines.

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Lyso-phosphatidyl-choline

About the structure and biological function of LPC

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidyl-cholines (lysolecithin, LysoPtdCho, LysoPC, or LPC) are a type of glycerophosphocholines, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphocholine molecule. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Lyso-phosphatidyl-cholines are potent signaling molecules and they have many functions related to inflammation and the immune system. They are suggested an important factor for neurodegeneration such as cognitive decline and dementia, and promote demyelination of neurons. Impaired levels of LPCs are also linked to cardiovascular disease and cancers. They have some functions in cell signaling. Further, LPC lipids have beneficial effects by activating macrophages.

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Lyso-phosphatidate

About the structure and biological function of LPA

Structure. Lyso-phosphatidates (lyso-phosphatidic acids, LysoPtdOH, LysoPA, or LPA) are a type of glycerophosphates, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to a fatty acid and a phosphate group. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Lyso-phosphatidates influence many biochemical processes in cells and act as lipid mediators with growth factor-like activities. They act upon nearly all cell types, often as signal for proliferation, cytoskeleton re-arrangement, cell differentiation, cytokine secretion, and many other vital cellular processes. Further, there is evidence for the role of LPA lipids in the remodeling of lipid metabolism in cancer. They are a target of pharmaceutical research in the search for new cancer drugs.

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Phosphatidyl-serine

About the structure and biological function of PS

Structure. Phosphatidyl-serines (PtdSer, GPSer, or PS) are a type of glycerophosphoserines, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acids and a phosphoserine molecule. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Phosphatidyl-serines are essential membrane components and contribute to the organization of protein complexes on the cytosolic side of the membrane, thus facilitating signaling activities. They also serve as precursors for lyso-phosphatidylserines, and for phosphatidylethanolamines. They are essential cofactors that bind to and activate many proteins with signaling functions. Further, phosphatidylserines are an important element of the blood coagulation process in platelets, and have a role in regulation of apoptosis, programmed cell death.

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Phosphatidyl-inositol

About the structure and biological function of PI

Structure. Phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns, GPIns, or PI) are a type of glycerophosphoinositols, a class of glycerophospholipids. Their structure consists of a glycerol backbone linked to two fatty acids and a phosphoinositol molecule. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Phosphatidylinositols are key membrane components and vital to many cellular processes. They are the major source for arachidonic acid for the synthesis of eicosanoids, bioactive lipids with signaling functions in allergy, inflammation, childbirth, pain perception, cell growth, blood pressure, and more. Further, phosphatidylinositols are the precursors to phosphoinositides with further signaling and other functional activities

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