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Omega-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of EOH

Structure. Omega-hydroxy-fatty acid [EO] 6-hydroxy-sphingosine [H] ceramides (CER[EOH], or EOH) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically 6-hydroxy-sphingosine, and a fatty acid. The fatty acid is an ω-hydroxy fatty acid and “elongated” by a further fatty acid via an ester bond. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Omega-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosines are mostly important for human skin where they serve mainly structural roles. EOH ceramides are critical to the lamellar phase of the epidermal barrier function to prevent trans-epidermal water loss but also protect against the environment. Aberrations of skin ceramide levels can contribute or lead to skin conditions. Reduced levels of EOH ceramides are linked to psoriasis and dry skin. Further, EOH lipids are increased in Albino African skin.

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Omega-hydroxy-phyto-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of EOP

Structure. Omega-hydroxy-fatty acid [EO] phytosphingosine [P] ceramides (CER[EOP], or EOP) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically phytosphingosine, and a fatty acid. The fatty acid is an ω-hydroxy fatty acid and “elongated” by a further fatty acid via an ester bond. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The role of omega-hydroxy-phytosphingosines is mostly associated with human skin where they fulfill mainly structural purposes. EOP ceramides are relevant to the formation of the lamellar phase of the epidermal barrier to prevent trans-epidermal water loss but also protect against the environment. Skin ceramide profile aberrations can lead or contribute to skin conditions.  In general, reduced levels of omega-hydroxy ceramides are linked to dry skin and psoriasis.

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Omega-hydroxy-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of EOS

Structure. Omega-hydroxy-fatty acid [EO] sphingosine [S] ceramides (CER[EOS], or EOS) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically sphingosine, and a fatty acid. The fatty acid is an ω-hydroxy fatty acid and “elongated” by a further fatty acid via an ester bond. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The biological function of omega-hydroxy-sphingosines is tightly linked to skin health where they serve mainly structural roles. EOS ceramides are important to the lamellar phase of the epidermal barrier function which prevents trans-epidermal water loss but also protects against environmental factors. Skin ceramide imbalances can lead or contribute to the development of skin conditions. Decreased EOS levels are associated with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and dry skin.

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Omega-hydroxy-dihydro-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of EOdS

Structure. Omega-hydroxy-fatty acid [EO] dihydro-sphingosine [dS] ceramides (CER[EOdS], or EOdS) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically dihydrosphingosine, and a fatty acid. The fatty acid is an ω-hydroxy fatty acid and “elongated” by a further fatty acid via an ester bond. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The biological function of omega-hydroxy-dihydrosphingosines mostly revolves around skin health where they serve mainly structural roles. EOdS ceramides are critical to the formation of the lamellar phase of the epidermal barrier which prevents trans-epidermal water loss but also protects from the environment. Imbalanced skin ceramides can contribute or lead to the development of skin conditions. In general, reduced levels of omega-hydroxy ceramides are linked to dry skin and psoriasis.

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Alpha-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of AH

Structure. Alpha-hydroxy-fatty acid [A] 6-hydroxy-sphingosine [H] ceramides (CER[AH], or AH) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically 6-hydroxy-sphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is an α-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The biological roles of alpha-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosines are tightly linked to skin health where they fulfill structural and signaling purposes. AH ceramides are involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier to protect against the environment and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. They are critical for barrier homeostasis. Aberrations of skin ceramide levels can contribute or lead to skin conditions. Further, AH ceramides are increased in Albino African skin.

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Alpha-hydroxy-phyto-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of AP

Structure. Alpha-hydroxy-fatty acid [A] phytosphingosine [P] ceramides (CER[AP], or AP) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically phytosphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is an α-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The function of alpha-hydroxy-phytosphingosines mainly revolves around skin health where they serve structural and signaling roles. AP ceramides contribute to epidermal barrier function which protects against environmental factors and prevents trans-epidermal water loss. They are critical to barrier homeostasis. Skin ceramide profile aberrations can lead or contribute to skin conditions. Further, AP ceramides are increased during winter months in healthy skin and decreased in Albino African skin.

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Alpha-hydroxy-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of AS

Structure. Alpha-hydroxy-fatty acid [A] sphingosine [S] ceramides (CER[AS], or AS) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically sphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is an α-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Alpha-hydroxy-sphingosines are mostly important for skin health where they serve structural and signaling roles. AS ceramides are involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier which protects against the environment and prevents trans-epidermal water loss. They are critical to barrier homeostasis. Skin ceramide imbalances can lead or contribute to the development of skin conditions. AS levels are reduced in psoriasis and dry skin. Further, AS ceramides are increased in Albino African skin.

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Alpha-hydroxy-dihydro-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of AdS

Structure. Alpha-hydroxy-fatty acid [A] dihydro-sphingosine [dS] ceramides (CER[AdS], or AdS) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically dihydrosphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is an α-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The biological functions of alpha-hydroxy-dihydrosphingosines are mainly associated with human skin where they serve structural and signaling roles. AdS ceramides contribute to epidermal barrier function to protect against the environment and prevent trans-epidermal water loss. They are critical to barrier homeostasis. Imbalanced skin ceramides can contribute or lead to the development of skin conditions. Further, AdS ceramides are decreased in Albino African skin.

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Non-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of NH

Structure. Non-hydroxy-fatty acid [N] 6-hydroxy-sphingosine [H] ceramides (CER[NH], or NH) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically 6-hydroxy-sphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is a non-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The biological role of non-hydroxy-6-hydroxy-sphingosines mainly revolves around skin health where they serve structural and signaling roles. NH ceramides contribute to epidermal barrier function which protects against environmental factors and prevents trans-epidermal water loss. Imbalanced skin ceramides can contribute or lead to the development of skin conditions. Further, NH ceramides are increased during winter months in healthy skin.

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Non-hydroxy-phyto-sphingosine

About the structure and biological function of NP

Structure. Non-hydroxy-fatty acid [N] phytosphingosine [P] ceramides (CER[NP], or NP) are a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically phytosphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is a non-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. The function of non-hydroxy-phytosphingosines is tightly linked to skin health where they serve structural and signaling roles. NP ceramides are involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier which protects against the environment and prevents trans-epidermal water loss. Skin ceramide imbalances can lead or contribute to the development of skin conditions. Increased NP levels are associated with psoriasis. Further, NP ceramides are decreased in Albino African skin.

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