About the structure and biological function of GT3
Structure. GT3 ganglioside lipids (GT3) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a tri-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of five sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GT3 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially cells of the nervous system. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. Little is known about the function of GT3 gangliosides in vertebrates but they are elevated in the human retina where they are suggested to play a specific role in the structure and function of the tissue. They also serve as precursors of more complex gangliosides. Modified GT3 gangliosides have been associated with tumors, representing an attractive target for immunotherapeutic approaches using GT3 ganglioside antibodies. Further, GT3 levels are reduced in Alzheimer disease models.
GT3 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 10|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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