About the structure and biological function of GM4
Structure. GM4 ganglioside lipids (GM4) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a mono-sialic disaccharide unit. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GM4 gangliosides are found invertebrates, especially in nervous tissue and kidney. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. Little is known about the function of GM4 gangliosides in vertebrates but they have been found to be a major ganglioside within myelin, the insulating layer that is produced by oligodendrocytes and forms around the axons of neurons. GM4 lipids are increased in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer’s patients. Further, GM4 supports oligodendrocyte proliferation, a process that is important for remyelination of demyelinated neurons and is impaired in multiple sclerosis.
GM4 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||< 10|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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