About the structure and biological function of GM2
Structure. GM2 ganglioside lipids (GM2) are a type of gangliosides, a subclass of glycosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide base linked to a mono-sialic oligosaccharide unit made of four sugar molecules. The ceramide base contains two hydrocarbon chains, the fatty acid of the long-chain base and a second fatty acid. The fatty acids can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
GM2 gangliosides are found in vertebrate cells, especially in nervous tissue and bone marrow. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the cell membrane and in lipid rafts.
Function. GM2 gangliosides are components of the cell membrane and may suppress malignant properties of various cancers. The mechanism is suggested to be due to complex formation at the cell surface with membrane proteins. Genetic defects leading to accumulation of GM2, due to increased lysosomal storage cause Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff and AB variant disease. Further, GM2 lipids bind to a toxin secreted by Clostridium perfringens.
GM2 lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||species level|
|Variants identified||> 25|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||2-4 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
DiHexCer, Gb3, Gb4, GM1, GM2, GM3, GM4, GD1, GD2, GD3, GT1, GT2, GT3, GQ1, Sulf
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