About the structure and biological function of AP
Structure. Alpha-hydroxy-phyto-sphingosines (CER[AP], or AP) are a type of sphinganines, a subclass of ceramides. Their structure consists of a sphingoid base, specifically phytosphingosine, and a fatty acid, which is an α-hydroxy fatty acid. The fatty acid can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.
AP lipids are found in skin. On a subcellular level, they are enriched in the extracellular lipid matrix of the stratum corneum.
Function. The function of alpha-hydroxy-phytosphingosines mainly revolves around skin health where they serve structural and signaling roles. AP ceramides contribute to epidermal barrier function which protects against environmental factors and prevents trans-epidermal water loss. They are critical to barrier homeostasis. Skin ceramide profile aberrations can lead or contribute to skin conditions. Further, AP ceramides are increased during winter months in healthy skin and decreased in Albino African skin.
Skin biology is central to develop reliable moisturizers, but molecular analysis of the skin has been lacking.
AP lipidomics analysis with
|Structural details||subspecies level|
|Variants identified||> 100|
|Method||mass spectrometry (untargeted)|
|Delivery time||3-6 weeks|
|Lipidomics data||pmol & mol%|
TAG, DAG, Chol, CE, NdS, NS, NP, NH, AdS, AS, AP, AH, EOdS, EOS, EOP, EOH
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