Blog Archives

general_structure_of_mannosyl-di-inositolphosphoryl-ceramide.png

Mannosyl-di-(inositol-phosphoryl)-ceramide

About the structure and biological function of M(IP)2C

Structure. Mannosyl-di-(inositol-phosphoryl)-ceramides (mannose-(inositol-P)2-ceramides, or M(IP)2C) are a type of glycophosphosphingolipids, a subclass of phosphosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide backbone bound to two linked phosphorylinositol molecules of which one is mannosylated. The ceramide backbone contains two hydrocarbon chains: a long-chain base which is linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond. The fatty acid and the long-chain base can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Little is known about the biological function of mannosyl-di-(inositolphosphoryl)-ceramides but they are important components of biological membranes of fungi. Together with MIPC, they constitute the major sphingolipids in yeasts. As M(IP)2C lipids are not produced in mammals, targeting their synthesis is a strategy for novel antifungal drugs. Further, M(IP)2C ceramides interact with plant defensins, small peptides produced by plants that possess antifungal activity.

read more ➔

general_structure_of_mannosyl-inositolphosphoryl-ceramide.png

Mannosyl-inositol-phosphoryl-ceramide

About the structure and biological function of MIPC

Structure. Mannosyl-inositolphosphoryl-ceramides (mannose-inositol-P-ceramides, or MIPC) are a type of glycophospho-sphingolipids, a subclass of phosphosphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide backbone bound to a mannosylated phosphorylinositol molecule. The ceramide backbone contains two hydrocarbon chains: a long-chain base which is linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond. The fatty acid and the long-chain base can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Mannosyl-inositolphosphoryl-ceramides are important components of biological membranes of fungi. Together with M(IP)2C, they constitute the major sphingolipids in yeasts, where they have multiple functions related to maintenance of cell morphology and are required for the localization of cell membrane proteins. Depending on the immune status of the host, MIPC ceramides of the pathogenic yeast candida albicans indirectly cause immune system disorder and persistent fungal disease.

read more ➔

general_structure_of_inositolphosphoryl-ceramide.png

Inositol-phosphoryl-ceramide

About the structure and biological function of IPC

Structure. Inositolphosphoryl-ceramides (inositol-P-ceramides, or IPC) are a type of phosphosphingolipids, a class of sphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide backbone bound to a phosphorylinositol molecule. The ceramide backbone contains two hydrocarbon chains: a long-chain base which is linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond. The fatty acid and the long-chain base can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Inositolphosphoryl-ceramides are substantial components of biological membranes in yeast. In lipid rafts of the cell membrane, IPC lipids interact with membrane proteins with signaling functions – a role similar to those of sphingomeylins in animals. IPC ceramides are also the precursor for further complex glycophosphosphingolipids. Further, the biosynthesis of IPC lipids reduces the pool of intracellular ceramide and thus inhibits programmed cell death.

read more ➔

general_structure_of_sphingomyelin.png

Sphingomyelin

About the structure and biological function of SM

Structure. Sphingomyelins (CerPCho, or SM) are a type of phosphosphingolipids, a class of sphingolipids. Their structure consists of a ceramide backbone bound to a phosphorylcholine molecule. The ceramide backbone contains two hydrocarbon chains: a long-chain base which is linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond. The fatty acid and the long-chain base can be of variable length, hydroxylated, and contain double bonds.

Function. Sphingomyelins play a key role in the cell membrane of animals. They are vital to the formation of lipid rafts and required for the activity of raft-dependent membrane proteins such as some ion channels. They also serve as precursors for sphingolipids in the ‘sphingomyelin cycle’. Further, sphingomyelin metabolism aberrations have been linked to Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease.

read more ➔